ɓ


ɓaɣʷ v. to hide cacher (5 groups, 11 languages) B
Although this root is only attested in 11 languages, these are from a wide area and diverse groups, and so this root is likely to have come from Proto-Central Chadic. In Proto-Daba there is an unestablished change *ɣʷ→h
ʷ. The labializtion component was lost in all languages, except for Daba where it was reanalysed as the labialization prosody. The same unestablished change took place in Podoko in the Mandara group. In the Mofu group there was a regular change *ɣʷhʷ in the Tokombere subgroup, and in Muyang the *h was lost in a sporadic change, leaving behind the labialization component. In the Mofu subgroup there was a regular change *ɣʷ→w. In Mofu-Gudur the *w was lost as a sporadic change. In Bata the labialisation has transferred to the *ɓ. In Bana there has been metathesis of the two consonants.

1Proto-Bata *ɓʷaɣ hide cacher 1.1) Bata (Boyd) ɓòò he hid his money; I hid from him; hide me, hide you; hide food from me, from you 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ɓʷəɣən Se cacher ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ɓʷah (se) cacher

2Proto-Daba *ɓahʷ hide cacher 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɓɑh hide (tr) cacher 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɓɑh store garder 2.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ɓɑh shelter abriter 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɓɑh store (up) garder, emmagasiner 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ɓɑh hide cacher 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəɓah hide (tr) cacher 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) ɓōh cacher, se cacher

3Proto-Mandara *ɓɨhʷa hide cacher 3.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɓəhʷá cacher

4Proto-Mofu *ɓa ʷ hide cacher 4.1) Muyang (Smith) ɓu hide ; avoid se cacher 4.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɓ ́ (se) cacher

5Proto-Higi *ɣʷɨɓɨ hide cacher 5.1) Bana (Lienhard) ɣùɓə́ se cacher (pour attrapper qqch.k)
ɓɨwak num. two deux (5 groups, 14 languages) C syn: tsɨjɨw, sɨwra, kasi.
This is one of a number of roots for 'two' found in Central Chadic. The range of languages where this root is attested implies a reasonable age, but it is more likely that *sɨwra was the Proto-Central Chadic root. The *ɓ has become /b/ in several languages, and a labial-velar double plosive in a few others. These changes are unestablished. The double plosive may be due to the *w merging with *ɓ, which is a known sporadic process. In many cases the *w has been lost sporadically, but in Kamwe-Nkafa it has merged with the *ɓ resulting in /ɓʷ/.

1Proto-Bata *ɓɨjak two deux 1.1) Bata (Boyd) kpjáq two 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) biik Chiffre deux

2Proto-Daba *ɓɨk two deux 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) gbɑk two (2) deux (2) 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) gbɑk two (2) deux (2) 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) bək two (2) deux (2)

3Proto-Sukur *bak two deux 3.1) Sukur (David) bak two

4Proto-Mandara *bɨwa two deux 4.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) bua two deux 4.2) Malgwa (Löhr) buwa two 4.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) bùːwa two (2)

5Proto-Higi *ɓɨwak two deux 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɓʷàgə́ Two 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɓakəo two 5.3) Kirya (Blench) ɓə̀kə̀ two 5.4) Psikye (Angelo) bák two 5.5) Bana (Lienhard) bák(ə) deux