ɣ


ɣaj nm. compound concession (12 groups, 28 languages) A rel. to: vɨn ʸ.
The basic meaning of this root is the entire compound, whilst *vɨn ʸ denotes a single building. The initial *ɣ also has the reflexes /g/ and /h/. The reflex /h/ is regular in Mandara, Malgwa, Muyang, Moloko and Proto-Kotoko North. The reflex /g/ is regular in the Meri sub-group of the Mofu group. In the Mofu subgroup the *ɣ is regularly lost. The *j is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Daba, and is vocalised in Sukur, which are common sporadic processes. It combines with *a in Proto-Kotoko South, which is an unestablished change.

1Proto-Bata *hajɨ hut case 1.1) Sharwa (Gravina) hajə Maison

2Proto-Daba *ga ʸ hut case 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ge house maison 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɡe house maison

3Proto-Mafa *gaj hut case 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) gáj case, consession

4Proto-Sukur *ɣi hut case 4.1) Sukur (David) ɣí house 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɣəi home; the house that you live in, especially with your family.

5Proto-Hurza *aga hut case 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) àga at_house_of chez

6Proto-Mandara *ɣaj hut case 6.1) Matal (Branger) gàj hut case 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kaja,-ə 1 concession, case, maison 6.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kaja,-ə 2 conteneur 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) concession (f), maison (f) 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) xàːwa entrance hut

7Proto-Mofu *ɣaj hut case 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɣàj house maison 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑhɑj maison, concession ; toute construction 7.2.1) Muyang (Smith) ɑhɑj class classe 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) háj house, compound maison; concession 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ga house maison 7.5) Merey (Gravina) gaj hut case, maison 7.5.1) Merey (Gravina) maison 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) gaj house maison 7.6.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) gaj hut case 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) ʔáj maison (ensemble de case) 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) waj home maison, concession

8Proto-Maroua *gaj hut case 8.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) gái house maison

9Proto-Higi *ɣaj hut case 9.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɣʷo house 9.2) Kirya (Blench) ɣàj house 9.3) Psikye (Angelo) ge house 9.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɣjì maison

10Proto-Kotoko North *ho hut case 10.1) Afade (Allison) ho house maison 10.2) Mpade (Allison) ho house maison 10.3) Malgbe (Allison) ha house maison

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɣaa hut case 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɣaa house maison

12Proto-Kotoko South *ɣe hut case 12.1) Mazera (Allison) ɣe hut case 12.1.1) Mazera (Allison) ɣe house maison
ɣanaɗ ʸ nf. tongue langue (7 groups, 20 languages) syn: ɗɨrɨnɨh ʸ, naɬɨj.
This root is found mostly in the South sub-branch of Central Chadic, but is also found in the Lamang and Higi groups. The *ɣ is realised as *g in Proto-Bata, Proto-Daba and Proto-Margi, which are unestablished changes. The *ɗ is only retained in the Daba group. In the Sukur, Lamang and Higi groups it is affected by the palatalisation prosody and is realised as *j, which is a regular process. The palatalisation prosody itself is only retained in Proto-Bata. In Proto-Tera it is vocalised, which is an unestablished change.

1Proto-Bata *gana ʸ tongue langue 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) gianan La langue comme organe. 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) gana langue 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) agana la langue

2Proto-Daba *ganaɗ tongue langue 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) gɑnɑnɑ tongue langue 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) gɑɗɑɗɑŋ tongue langue 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɡanaɗ tongue langue 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɡanaɗ language langue, langage 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) gànà la langue, le langage

3Proto-Tera *ɣina tongue langue 3.1) Tera (Newman) ɣena tongue 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɣin tongue

4Proto-Sukur *ɣanaj tongue langue 4.1) Sukur (David) ɣanaj tongue 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɣanai tongue:- is the part in the mouth that moves around the mouth when talking or eating.

5Proto-Margi gar ʸ tongue langue 5.1) Bura (Blench) keᵑgjar Tongue 5.2) Margi (Hoffman) kjar tongue 5.3) Margi South (Harley) kjar tongue 5.4) Kilba (Schuh) kjar tongue

6Proto-Lamang *ɣanɨj tongue langue 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɣènè tongue 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɣanik tongue la langue

7Proto-Higi *ɣanɨj tongue langue 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) annjə tongue 7.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) aniə tongue 7.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɣani tongue 7.3) Kirya (Blench) nɣànə́ tongue 7.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɣànì langue
ɣɨn nm. head tête (8 groups, 31 languages) A syn: ɣʷɨ.
The final *n has undergone the regular change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The Mafa /gəɗ/ has come from *gɨr, which implies that this reflex was borrowed from that major group. *ɣ has the reflex /g/ in several languages, which is a regular change in Dghwede and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. It developed into *k in Proto-Margi, probably via *h, though this change is unestablished. It has the regular reflex /h/ in Muyang, and has been lost in several languages, including the two Mofu subgroup languages where this change is regular. There are also instances of the reflex /j/ in Jimi, Cuvok, Mandara, Malgwa and Mbazla, but this change is unestablished. The Moloko and Giziga forms may represent compounds including the reflex of the proto-form.

1Proto-Bata *ɣɨnɨ head tête 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ná -ə (inher. poss., body part) head, top 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) jinən Tête 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ᵑgɨnə tête 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) əne la tête

2Proto-Mafa *jaŋ, gɨɗ head tête 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) gəɗ kəda tête de chien 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) jaŋ head tête

3Proto-Margi *kir head tête 3.1) Bura (Blench) kir Head; the top 3.2) Margi (Hoffman) kər head 3.3) Margi South (Hoffman) kər head 3.3.1) Margi South (Harley) kər head 3.4) Kilba (Hoffman) kər head 3.4.1) Kilba (Schuh) kər head

4Proto-Mandara *ɣɨra head tête 4.1) Matal (Branger) gəl head tête 4.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ira tête (f) 4.3) Malgwa (Löhr) iire head 4.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʁɾa head 4.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʁɾa head 4.4.2) Glavda (Owens) γr head, mind, intellect 4.5) Dghwede (Frick) gre head

5Proto-Mofu *ɣɨr head tête 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɣàr head tête 5.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑhɑ̀r tête, le dessus de quelque chose ; la personne même 5.3) Moloko (Friesen) dəraj head tête 5.4) Zulgo (Haller) gər tête f. 5.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) gər head tête 5.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) gar la tête 5.6) Merey (Gravina) gər head tête 5.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) gar head tête 5.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ʔár tête 5.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ʼar la tête 5.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) raj head (of person, animal, etc.), the top part of something tête 5.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) raj sommet, dessus, cime

6Proto-Maroua hɨrɨŋ, jɨŋ head tête 6.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hirᵑga(Mt) hirᵑgaŋ(Mj) tête 6.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) huruŋ head tête 6.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) jiŋ tête

7Proto-Lamang *ɣɨŋ head tête 7.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɣàŋ head 7.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɣəŋ head la tête

8Proto-Higi *ɣɨn head tête 8.1) Kirya (Blench) ɣə̀n head 8.2) Bana (Lienhard) ɣə̀n tête, sommet, cime
ɣɨwaj nm. neck cou (5 groups, 8 languages) B syn: wɨraj.
This root has few attestations, but they are from a diverse set of languages. The *ɣ has been lost in most languages, though this change is not regular. It has merged with the *w in Lagwan and Ouldeme to create a labialised consonant. The *j has merged with *a in Proto-Kotoko North, and is lost in Proto-Kotoko Centre. These are all common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Mafa *ɨwaj neck cou 1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) uwaj neck cou

2Proto-Mofu *hʷaj neck cou 2.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) hʷàj neck cou

3Proto-Kotoko Island *wɨj neck cou 3.1) Buduma (McKone) wuj cou.

4Proto-Kotoko North *we neck cou 4.1) Afade (Allison) we neck cou 4.2) Mpade (Allison) neck cou 4.3) Malgbe (Allison) we neck cou

5Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɣʷa neck cou 5.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɣʷae neck cou 5.2) Mser (Allison) wa neck cou