ɬ


ɬa₁ nf. cow bœuf (18 groups, 54 languages)
This is the best attested root in Central Chadic, occuring in all eighteen groups. *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch, with the further regular reflex *l within part of the Bata group. *ɬ also has the regular reflexes *h in Buduma, *s in Proto-Kotoko South and some of the other Kotoko languages, and *ʃ in Mpade.

1Proto-Bata *ɮa cow vache 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) cow 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) lan 2 - Bœuf 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) la Bœuf ,bœufs 1.3.1) Sharwa (Gravina) la vache 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮa le bœuf 1.4.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮakən la vache

2Proto-Daba *ɮa cow vache 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮɑ ox (general term), bovine bœuf 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮɑ ox (general term), bovine bœuf 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɮa ox bœuf 2.4) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) ɮa boeuf 2.5) Daba (Lienhard) ɮà la vache, le bétail

3Proto-Mafa *ɮa cow vache 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ɮe cow boeuf 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮa ox bœuf

4Proto-Tera *ɮa cow vache 4.1) Tera (Newman) ɮa cow 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮe cow 4.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮa cow (female)

5Proto-Sukur *ɮɨ cow vache 5.1) Sukur (David) ɮə cow, general term for cattle 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮəŋa my cow; not belong to some one

6Proto-Hurza *ɬa cow vache 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬa cow boeuf, vache 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āɬā ox boeuf

7Proto-Margi *ɬa cow vache 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) ɬa cow 7.2) Margi South (Harley) thla cow 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) ɬa cow 7.4) Bura (Blench) ɬa, ɬi Cow

8Proto-Mandara *ɨɬa cow vache 8.1) Matal (Branger) ɬa cow boeuf 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬa,-a vache, boeuf 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) éɬá boeuf (m) 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əthla cattle, cow 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬa cow (female)

9Proto-Mofu *ɬa cow vache 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬà ox boeuf 9.2) Moloko (Friesen) ɬa cow vache; boeuf 9.3) Zulgo (Haller) ɬa vache f. 9.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɬa ox bœuf 9.5) Merey (Gravina) ɬa ox bœuf 9.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) mamij ɬa cow vache 9.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɬā bovin, vache, boeuf. 9.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬa cow bovin, vache

10Proto-Maroua *ɬa cow vache 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬa vache 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬa ox bœuf 10.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬa cow vache 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɬa vache

11Proto-Lamang *ɬa cow vache 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɬá cow 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬa cow la vache varieté zébu

12Proto-Higi *ɬa cow vache 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɬá cow 12.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) thla cow 12.2) Kirya (Blench) ɬá cow 12.3) Psikye (Angelo) ɬa cow 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɬá vache

13Proto-Kotoko Island *ha cow vache 13.1) Buduma (McKone) ha cow vache

14Proto-Kotoko North *ɬa cow vache 14.1) Afade (Allison) ɬa; ɬa l gɨrɨm cow vache 14.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃá cow vache 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬa cow vache

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬa cow vache 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) nɬa cow vache 15.2) Mser (Allison) sa ox bœuf

16Proto-Kotoko South *sa cow vache 16.1) Zina (Odden) àsà cow vache 16.2) Mazera (Allison) kɨsa cow vache

17Proto-Musgum *ɬaj cow vache 17.1) Vulum (Tourneux) ɬaj vache 17.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) ɬe boeuf 17.3) Mbara (Tourneux) wurɮaj cow

18Proto-Gidar *waɬɨja cow vache 18.1) Gidar (Hungerford) waɬija vache, boeuf 18.2) Gidar (Schuh) waɬija/0 vache
ɬa₂ v. cut couper (13 groups, 34 languages) A
This is a very well attested Central Chadic root. The *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch. Within the Bata group, there has been a subsequent regular change *ɮ→l in most languages. *ɬ also has the regular reflex *s in several Kotoko languages. The ejective that is present in Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Kotoko Centre may indicate that the root originally contained a glottal consonant such as *ɗ, which fused with the reflex of *ɬ, but without any supporting evidence this cannot be included in the reconstruction.

1Proto-Bata *ɮa cut couper 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) la cut 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) lan 1 - Trouver, couper avec un couteau ou une hache ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) la (se) couper 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) a ɮakən couper en morceau?

2Proto-Daba *ɮa cut couper 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮɑ cut couper 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮɑ cut with a blade (tr) couper avec une lame 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮɑ saw (wood) scier 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɮu cut (tr) couper 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəɮa butcher, cut up (meat) (v) abattre, découper (viande) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) ɮà couper

3Proto-Tera *ɮa cut couper 3.1) Tera (Newman) ɮa cut (e.g. w/ knife)

4Proto-Sukur *ɮɨ cut couper 4.1) Sukur (David) ɮə cut, to

5Proto-Hurza *ɬa cut couper 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬa to cut (eg grass) couper (eg herbe) 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬáwā cut couper

6Proto-Margi *ɬa cut couper 6.1) Bura (Blench) ɬa To cut up in pieces 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) ɬə to cut (with axe) 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) ɬa/a cut 6.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) ɬa/a slaughter 6.3.2) Kilba (Schuh) ɬau cut

7Proto-Mandara *ɬa cut couper 7.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬa couper

8Proto-Mofu cut couper 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬì cut couper 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ɬɑj cut with a sickle couper (avec la faucille), couper en enlevant, couper l’obscurité 8.3) Zulgo (Haller) ɮe couper, faire une incision 8.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) maɬaj cut (tr) couper 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) méɬēj couper, circoncire 8.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) méɬēj appara"itre pour la lune, commencer (mois) 8.5.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) méɬēj ravir, épouser (femme) 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬ ́ couper; circoncire 8.6.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬ ́ apparaître (la lune), commencer (le mois)

9Proto-Maroua *ɬi cut couper 9.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɬi couper

10Proto-Higi *ɬa cut couper 10.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɬa cut open (papaya) 10.2) Kirya (Blench) ɬá cut, trim, sneeze, smell 10.3) Psikye (Angelo) ɬá cut 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɬá couper, tailler, trancher

11Proto-Kotoko North *ɬʼa cut couper 11.1) Afade (Allison) sʼa; sʼel chop into pieces fendre, couper en morceaux 11.2) Mpade (Allison) sʼà hò cut open fendre, ouvrir avec un couteau 11.2.1) Mpade (Allison) nsʼá chop into pieces fendre, couper en morceaux 11.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬawun cut open fendre, ouvrir avec un couteau 11.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) sʼɨnjawun chop into pieces fendre, couper en morceaux

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *sʼa cut couper 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) sʼawun chop into pieces fendre, couper en morceaux 12.2) Mser (Allison) sʼia cut open fendre, ouvrir avec un couteau 12.2.1) Mser (Allison) sʼia has has chop into pieces fendre, couper en morceaux

13Proto-Musgum *ɬi cut couper 13.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) ɬi couper 13.2) Mbara (Tourneux) ɬii cut couper
ɬaᵐbah n. leaf feuille (6 groups, 17 languages) D
This root is attested in some languages in the Mandara Mountains area. There is a fair degree of variation in the forms, and some parts of the reconstruction are provisional. Not all of the forms cited are necessarily cognate. It is possibly related to the root *ɬɨmɨɗ 'ear'.

1Proto-Daba *gʷaɬak leaf feuille 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) gʷɑɬɑkʷ wide leaf used for wrapping things feuille large qui sert à l'embalage 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) gʷɑɬɑk leaf feuille

2Proto-Mafa *ɮaᵐbaj, gamɬak leaf feuille 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮaᵐbaj feuille de mil 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) gamɬak leaf feuille

3Proto-Mandara *ɬɨbahɨ leaf feuille 3.1) Matal (Branger) babaɬ ahaf leaf feuille 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɮə́baha,-ə feuille 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ɬapa feuille (f), papier (m) 3.4) Dghwede (Frick) lbaxa leaf

4Proto-Mofu *ɬaᵐbah leaf feuille 4.1) Mada (Nkoumou) ɮbah j elle légume, feuille 4.2) Moloko (Friesen) aɬaᵐbah leaf feuille 4.3) Zulgo (Haller) ɬàᵐbah feuille f. 4.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɬaᵐbah leaf feuille 4.5) Merey (Gravina) ɬaᵐbah leaf feuille 4.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɬaᵐba leaf feuille 4.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) bāɬāh feuille

5Proto-Maroua *haɬaɓ leaf feuille 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) haɬaɓ feuilles du mil

6Proto-Gidar *gaɬᵐba leaf feuille 6.1) Gidar (Schuh) gaɬ ᵐba/a feuilles 6.2) Gidar (Hungerford) gaɬaᵐba feuille
ɬensi num. five cinq (3 groups, 6 languages) E syn: hʷɨtif, ɮɨɗɨm.
The forms here are not necessarily cognate, and the existence of this root, even within a subset of Central Chadic groups, is by no means certain.

1Proto-Kotoko Island *hiᵑgi five cinq 1.1) Buduma (McKone) xiᵑgi five (5) cinq (5) 1.2) Buduma (McKone) xiᵑgi cinq.

2Proto-Kotoko North *ɬʼentsi five cinq 2.1) Afade (Allison) ɬʼentsi five (5) cinq (5) 2.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃénsi five (5) cinq (5) 2.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬensi five (5) cinq (5)

3Proto-Kotoko Centre *ʃeʃi five cinq 3.1) Lagwan (Allison) ʃeʃi five (5) cinq (5) 3.2) Mser (Allison) ʃeʃi five (5) cinq (5)
ɬinɨ nf., v. work travail (11 groups, 34 languages) A
*ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch, and here that is the case in Proto-Daba and Proto-Sukur. However, in the Tera group we expect /ɮ/ but find /ɬ/, and in the Bata group we expect /ɮ/ in Tsuvan and /l/ in the other languages cited, but find /ɬ/ in all languages except Bata. The *n has the regular reflex *r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, and here also in the Giziga languages, borrowed from Mofu-Gudur. *i is reconstructed based on its presence in Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi, Proto-Mandara and Proto-Higi. In most other groups *i is no longer contrastive.

1Proto-Bata *ɬinɨ work travail 1.1) Bata (Boyd) lènto work 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ɬənə work 1.2.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ɬə̀ná -ə work 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ɬinən Travail, travailler ; 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) ɬən travail 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɬinikən le travail

2Proto-Daba *ɮɨn work travail 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮɑn work (n) travail 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮən work (n) travail

3Proto-Tera *ɬɨna work travail 3.1) Tera (Newman) ɬəna work 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɬu̱na work (n)

4Proto-Sukur *ɮɨn work travail 4.1) Sukur (David) ɮən work 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮən work

5Proto-Hurza *ɬɨna work travail 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) aɬan travail 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬə̄rá work travail

6Proto-Margi *ɬir work travail 6.1) Bura (Blench) kiɬir Work 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) ɬər work 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) ɬəra// work

7Proto-Mandara *ɬɨri work travail 7.1) Matal (Branger) ɬᵊ̄rāj work travail 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬərá travailler, cultiver 7.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬəra,-i travail 7.3) Malgwa (Löhr) thləra work 7.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬɾa work (n) 7.4.1) Glavda (Owens) łə work 7.5) Dghwede (Frick) ɬəra work

8Proto-Mofu *ɬɨr work travail 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) àɬə̀r work travail 8.2) Moloko (Friesen) ɬərele work travail 8.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) məɬer work (n) travail 8.4) Merey (Gravina) məɬer work (n) travail 8.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) məɬer work (n) travail 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬəra travail

9Proto-Maroua *ɬɨra work travail 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬra, ɬra travail 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬra travail 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬira work (n) travail

10Proto-Lamang *ɬɨna work travail 10.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬəna work le travail

11Proto-Higi *ɬinɨ work travail 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɬə́nə́ Work 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɬinə work 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ɬə́nə́ work, duty 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) ɬə́nə́ work 11.5) Bana (Lienhard) ɬə́ní travail, travailler
ɬira num. six six (2 groups, 3 languages) C syn: kɨwah, vɨnahkɨr, markɨɗ ʸ.
This is one of several roots for 'six', and is found only in the Musgum and Gidar groups. The vowel *i is tentatively reconstructed, but without great confidence.

1Proto-Musgum *ɬira six six 1.1) Vulum (Tourneux) ɬaara six 1.2) Mbara (Tourneux) ɬira six

2Proto-Gidar *ɬɨra ʸ six six 2.1) Gidar (Schuh) ɬəre six 2.2) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬre six, 6
ɬɨɗɨn ʸ nf. tooth dent (18 groups, 53 languages) B
This root is found in all groups, and can be reconstructed for Proto-Chadic and in other branches of Afroasiatic. *ɬ behaves as expected, having the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch and other regular reflexes such as /l/, /s/ and /h/ in individual languages or group proto-languages. The final *n has the regular reflex *r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. *ɗ is reconstructed based on data from the Daba and Lamang groups. In the Daba group, the reflex /ɗ/ is found. In the Lamang group the Lamang language has /d/ and Hdi has /ʔ/, giving good grounds for reconstructing *ɗ. In the Hurza group, the Vame word gives support for a middle consonant in the root, but does not provide support for *ɗ itself. Under palatalisation,
regularly becomes /j/ in most languages, which accounts for its absence in some cases. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups where it is a productive feature.

1Proto-Bata *ɮinɨ ʸ tooth dent 1.1) Bata (Boyd) linto tooth 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) lìnjínə (inher. poss., body part) tooth, teeth 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) linjən Dent 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) linjə Dent 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮine la dent

2Proto-Daba *ɮɨɗaŋ ʸ tooth dent 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮəɗeŋ tooth dent 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮiɗeŋ tooth dent

3Proto-Mafa *ɮan ʸ tooth dent 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮene dent 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮeŋ tooth dent

4Proto-Tera *ɮin tooth dent 4.1) Tera (Newman) ɮin tooth (general term and incisor) 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮin tooth

5Proto-Sukur *ɮɨn ʸ tooth dent 5.1) Sukur (David) ɮjin tooth 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮin teeth:- is something in the mouth for both human and animal usually for eating and bitting.

6Proto-Hurza *ɬahan tooth dent 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬan tooth dent 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬāhán tooth dent

7Proto-Margi *ɬɨr ʸ tooth dent 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) hjir tooth 7.2) Margi South (Harley) hjir tooth 7.2.1) Margi South (Hoffman) hjir tooth 7.3) Kilba (Hoffman) hjir tooth 7.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) hjir tooth 7.4) Bura (Blench) ɬir Tooth (Preferably 'hlir') (BR) 7.4.1) Bura (Blench) hir Tooth 7.4.2) Bura (Blench) hjir, hir Tooth, teeth

8Proto-Mandara *ɬɨrɨ ʸ tooth dent 8.1) Matal (Branger) ɬɪ᷆ɗ tooth dent 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬira,-ə dent 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ɬáré dent (f), défense d'éléphant, tranchant de la lame d'un instrument, croc d'un animal 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) thlaare tooth 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬr̀ɗa tooth 8.6) Dghwede (Frick) ɬire tooth

9Proto-Mofu *ɬɨr ʸ tooth dent 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āɬár tooth dent 9.2) Muyang (Smith) aɬər tooth dent 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) aɬár dent 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) aɬar tooth dent 9.5) Zulgo (Haller) ɮír dent f. 9.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮer tooth dent 9.7) Merey (Gravina) ɮer tooth dent 9.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮer tooth dent 9.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɬér dent 9.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬer dent ; croc, défense (d'éléphant)

10Proto-Maroua *ɬɨn ʸ tooth dent 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬiŋ dent 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬin tooth dent 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɬiŋ dent 10.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) híŋ tooth dent

11Proto-Lamang *ɬiɗiŋ tooth dent 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɬidiŋ teeth 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬiʼiŋ tooth la dent

12Proto-Higi *ɬinɨ tooth dent 12.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɬino tooth 12.2) Kirya (Blench) ɬàj tooth 12.3) Psikye (Angelo) ɬənə́ tooth 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɬìnì dent

13Proto-Kotoko Island *hɨnaj tooth dent 13.1) Buduma (McKone) hənaj dent.

14Proto-Kotoko North *ɬɨr tooth dent 14.1) Afade (Allison) ɬɨr tooth dent 14.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃán tooth dent 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬɨr tooth dent

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬɨni tooth dent 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬɨni tooth dent 15.2) Mser (Allison) sɨr tooth dent

16Proto-Kotoko South *sin tooth dent 16.1) Zina (Odden) sìn tooth dent 16.2) Mazera (Allison) sine tooth dent

17Proto-Musgum *ɬɨŋ tooth dent 17.1) Vulum (Tourneux) ɬɨŋɬɨŋ dent

18Proto-Gidar *ɬaja tooth dent 18.1) Gidar (Schuh) ɬaja, dent 18.2) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬaja dent
ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ₂ n. ear oreille (18 groups, 53 languages) A cf: ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ.
This root is attested in all Central Chadic groups. The initial *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch and has regular reflexes in all alnguages. The *m is stable, except for the sporadic change to /ᵐb/ in Mafa. The final *ɗ is retained in Mafa and the Giziga languages, and there is the reflex /ʔ/ in Daba and Mbazla. Elsewhere the *ɗ has either been lost completely, or has been palatalised, with *ɗʲ→j. As a result of this, the palatalisation prosody is only apparent in four groups.

1Proto-Bata *ɮɨmi ʸ ear oreille 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) lə̀má -ə (inher. poss.) name 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) limən 1 - Oreille; 2 - Nom 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) limi oreille 1.3.1) Sharwa (Gravina) limi nom 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮəme l'oreille

2Proto-Daba *ɮɨmɨʔ ʸ ear oreille 2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮəm ear oreille 2.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮɑm ear oreille 2.3) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) ɮimi oreille 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) ɮìmī ʼ l'oreille ; écouter, entendre, obéir 2.5) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɮəm ear oreille

3Proto-Mafa *ɮɨmaɗ ear oreille 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮəᵐbaɗ oreille 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮəmaj ear oreille

4Proto-Tera *ɮim ear oreille 4.1) Tera (Newman) ɮim ear 4.1.1) Tera (Newman) ɮim name 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮu̱m ear 4.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮu̱m name

5Proto-Sukur *ɮɨmaj ear oreille 5.1) Sukur (David) ɮəmaj ear 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮəmai ear; is the general term for ear.

6Proto-Hurza *ɬɨmaj ear oreille 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬəmaj ear oreille 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬəmaj ear oreille

7Proto-Margi *ɬɨmi ʸ ear oreille 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) ɬimi ear 7.2) Margi South (Harley) himi ear 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) hjimi ear 7.4) Bura (Blench) ɬim Ear

8Proto-Mandara *ɬɨmɨ ʸ ear oreille 8.1) Matal (Branger) ɬəm ear oreille 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬəma,-ə 1 oreille 8.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬəma,-ə 2 barbillon d'une flèche 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) hjama oreille (f) 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) hjima ear 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) çɨ̀mja ear 8.5.1) Glavda (Owens) çími leaf, ear 8.6) Dghwede (Frick) ɬəme ear

9Proto-Mofu *ɬɨmaj ear oreille 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬə̄māj ear oreille 9.2) Muyang (Smith) ɬimi ear ; name oreille; nom 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) ɬme oreille 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɮə́m oreille f. 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮam ear oreille 9.6) Merey (Gravina) ɮəm ear oreille 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮam ear oreille 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɬə́máj oreille 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬəmaj ear oreille

10Proto-Maroua *ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ ear oreile 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬimiɗ(i) oreille, nom, prénom 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬimeɗ ear oreille 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɬəmaj oreille 10.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ʃímɛ̄ʼ ear oreille

11Proto-Lamang *ɬɨmɨŋ ear oreille 11.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬəməŋ ear l'oreille

12Proto-Higi *ɬɨmɨ ear oreille 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɬəmə ear 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɬimoᵑg ear 12.3) Kirya (Blench) ɬə́m ear, name 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɬə́mə́ oreille

13Proto-Kotoko Island *hɨmu ear oreille 13.1) Buduma (McKone) həmuə ear oreille 13.2) Buduma (McKone) həmu oreille, nom, anse.

14Proto-Kotoko North *ɬɨm ear oreille 14.1) Afade (Allison) ɬɨm ear oreille 14.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃimu ear oreille 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬɨm ear oreille

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬɨmi ear oreille 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬɨmi ear oreille 15.2) Mser (Allison) sɨm; tobo ear oreille

16Proto-Kotoko South *sime ear oreille 16.1) Mazera (Allison) sime ear oreille

17Proto-Musgum *ɬɨma ʷ ear oreille 17.1) Mbara (Tourneux) ɬumo ear

18Proto-Gidar *ɬɨma ear oreille 18.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬəma oreille 18.1.1) Gidar (Schuh) ɬəma/a oreille

19Kanuri sə́mo ear oreille
ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ₁ nm. name nom (12 groups, 23 languages) A cf: ɬɨmɨɗ ʸ.
This root is reconstructed to be identical with the root for 'ear', though the reflexes in individual languages may differ. It is not known if the two words are in fact two senses of the same word. *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the languages of the South sub-branch, and other regular reflexes in individual languages. The final *ɗ has the reflex *j in several groups due to the effect of palatalisation.

1Proto-Daba *ɮɨm name nom 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮɑm name nom 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮəm name nom

2Proto-Mafa *ɮɨᵐbaɗ name nom 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ńɮəᵐbáɗ nom

3Proto-Tera *ɮɨm name nom 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮu̱m name

4Proto-Hurza *ɬɨmaj name nom 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬəmaj name nom

5Proto-Margi *ɬim name nom 5.1) Bura (Blench) ɬim Name 5.2) Kilba (Schuh) ɬəm name

6Proto-Mandara *ɬɨm name nom 6.1) Matal (Branger) ɬəm name nom

7Proto-Mofu *ɬɨmɨj name nom 7.1) Muyang (Smith) ɬimi ear ; name oreille; nom 7.2) Mada (Nkoumou) ɬme nom 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) ɬəmaj ear oreille 7.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) ɬəmaj name nom 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮam name nom 7.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮam name nom

8Proto-Maroua *ɬɨmaɗ ʸ name nom 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬimeɗ name nom 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɬəmaj nom 8.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) sə̀máí name nom

9Proto-Kotoko North *ɬɨm name nom 9.1) Afade (Allison) ɬɨm; ɬɨm sewe; ɬɨm a tse name nom 9.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃímù name nom 9.3) Malgbe (Allison) ɬɨm name nom 9.4) Maltam (Allison) ɬɨm sɨ wawun; ɬɨm sɨ hili (mawe / grɨm) name nom

10Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬɨmi name nom 10.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬɨmi; ɬɨmi a bɨlam name nom 10.2) Mser (Allison) sɨm name nom

11Proto-Kotoko South *sɨma ʸ name nom 11.1) Zina (Odden) sə̀m name nom 11.2) Mazera (Allison) sime name nom

12Proto-Musgum *ɬɨm ʸ name nom 12.1) Mbara (Tourneux) ɬim name
ɬɨn v. send envoyer (12 groups, 24 languages) A
The basic sense is to send someone to do something. The initial *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the languages of the South sub-branch, along with other regular reflexes in individual languages and groups. The *n has the regular reflex *r in the Mandara and Mofu groups. However, the final /n/ in Bura is expected to be /r/, and in Cuvok /n/ is expected where /r/ is found. The /l/ in Matal is the result of a subsequent regular change *r→l. In Lagwan and Mser there may be two similar roots *ɬɨn and *ɬʼɨm. The second of these, which is also given for Mpade, may not be cognate. The Bura word contains the vowel /e/, which is not part of the core phonemic inventory.

1Proto-Daba *ɮɨn send envoyer 1.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮən send envoyer 1.2) Daba (Lienhard) ɮə̄n envoyer

2Proto-Mafa *ɮɨn send envoyer 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮiᵑgd envoyer 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮəra send (something to someone) envoyer (qqch à qqun) 2.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮar ⁿda send (someone to do something) envoyer en commission

3Proto-Hurza *ɬɨn send envoyer 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬan send envoyer 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬə́nā send envoyer

4Proto-Margi *ɬen send envoyer 4.1) Bura (Blench) ɬenta To send (BR) Preferably hlenta 4.1.1) Bura (Blench) hjenta To send; to cause to go

5Proto-Mandara *ɬɨr send envoyer 5.1) Matal (Branger) màɬə̀lāj send envoyer

6Proto-Mofu *ɬɨr send envoyer 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬə̄r send envoyer 6.2) Mada (Nkoumou) maɬla envoyer en mission 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) ɬar send envoyer 6.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɬə́r envoyer, déléguer 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) meɬəre send (something to someone) envoyer (qqch à qqun) 6.6) Merey (Gravina) ɬər send envoyer 6.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məɬərej send (someone to do something) envoyer en commission 6.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬər envoyer qqn, charger d'une commission, commissionner, rendre service

7Proto-Maroua *ɬɨn send envoyer 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬin envoyer 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬəŋne send (someone to do something) envoyer en commission

8Proto-Kotoko North *tsʼam send envoyer 8.1) Mpade (Allison) tʃʼàm send (s.o. to do sth.) envoyer en commission

9Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬɨn send envoyer 9.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬɨ (ni) send (s.o. to do sth.) envoyer en commission 9.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬʼɨmwun; ɬʼɨm send (s.o. to do sth.) envoyer en commission 9.2) Mser (Allison) sɨn (bɨlam) send (s.o. to do sth.) envoyer en commission 9.2.1) Mser (Allison) sʼam (ni) send (sth. to s.o.) envoyer (qqch à qqn)

10Proto-Kotoko South *sɨne send envoyer 10.1) Mazera (Allison) sɨne send (sth. to s.o.) envoyer (qqch à qqn) 10.1.1) Mazera (Allison) sɨne send (s.o. to do sth.) envoyer en commission

11Proto-Musgum *ɬɨnɨ ʸ send envoyer 11.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) ɬini envoyer

12Proto-Gidar *ɬɨna send envoyer 12.1) Gidar (Hungerford) wəɬəna envoyer
ɬɨrɨgi nf. root racine (11 groups, 31 languages) C
This root presents some difficulties in its reconstruction. The *ɬ is expected to have the reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch, but this is not the case in any of the South groups (Bata, Daba, Mafa, Sukur). In the Bata group, there should also have been a subsequent change *ɮ→l in most languages, and this has not taken place. However, the regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch has taken place with a good degree of consistency. The *g has the unestablished reflexes /k/, /h/, /ᵑg/, /ŋ/ and /j/. In the Daba, Mafa and Maroua groups, and in some Mofu group languages, there is reduplication of the *ɬ. This is normally a sign that an initial consonant such as *h has been lost, but there is no direct evidence for such an initial consonant.

1Proto-Bata *ɬɨrɨgi root racine 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) lhə́rə̀gínə root(s) 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ɬərəgin Racines 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ɬjərjəgi racine 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɬere la racine

2Proto-Daba *ɬaɬalaj root racine 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɬɑɬɑlɑj root racine

3Proto-Mafa *ɬaɬaraj root racine 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ɬaɬalaj root racine

4Proto-Sukur *ɬɨj root racine 4.1) Sukur (David) ɬi root 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɬəi root:- the part of a plant that grows under the ground and absorbs water and minerals that is send to the rest of the plant.

5Proto-Hurza *ɬɨlɨkaj root racine 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬəlaj root racine 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬə̄lkē root racine

6Proto-Mandara *ɬalɨh root racine 6.1) Matal (Branger) ɬⁱ̄lɪ̀h root racine 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ɬalwe racine (f) 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) thlalawe root 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬàlīja root 6.5) Dghwede (Frick) ɬəla root

7Proto-Mofu *ɬɨlaj root racine 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬìkìlì root racine 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) ɬəlaj root racine 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) ɮílé racine f. 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮəle racine 7.5) Merey (Gravina) ɮəlaj root racine 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮəɮəlaj root racine 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɬə́fáj root racine 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɬaɬalaj racine ; (sens fig.) fils, richesse

8Proto-Maroua *ɬaɬalaki root racine 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɬaɬalak(a) daᵐbaɬa (Mj) racine d'arbre, remède (Mv: slaslak= dambasla: écorce de racine, racine. Mj slaslalak= racine d'un arbre sec 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɬaɬalak root racine 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʃilki, tʃelki racine 8.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) hìlíkiʼ root racine

9Proto-Lamang *ɬɨrɨŋ root racine 9.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬərəŋ root la racine

10Proto-Higi *ɬɨlɨᵑgɨ root racine 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) thlərəna root 10.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) thərna root 10.2) Kirya (Blench) ɬìrᵑgá root 10.3) Psikye (Angelo) ɬúgú root 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) xjílílìŋ(ə) racine

11Proto-Gidar *ɬalwaja root racine 11.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬalwaja racine
ɬɨwɨɗ ʸ nm. meat viande (16 groups, 43 languages) A
This is one of the most widely attested roots. The initial *ɬ has the regular reflex *ɮ in the South sub-branch, and the other reflexes are regular. The palatalisation prosody is present in many of the groups. In some groups it has combined with *ɗ, resulting in *j. In Mandara and Malgwa the *ɬ has been palatised and then moved to the velar position, resulting *hʲ, which is a regular process. In Matal and Podoko the *w and *d have fused, resulting in /ɓ/, and in Hdi the same phonemes have resulted in /ʔʷ/. These are both common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *ɮɨwɨ ʸ meat viande 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) lə̀wá -ə meat, wild animal 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) liwən Viande 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) liwə Viande 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮiwe la viande

2Proto-Daba *ɮɨj ʸ meat viande 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮej flesh chair 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɮej meat viande 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮi meat viande 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ɮi flesh chair 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɮi meat viande

3Proto-Mafa *ɮɨwaɗ ʸ meat viande 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ɮuweɗ meat viande 3.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮúwéɗ viande 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɬaw meat viande

4Proto-Tera *ɮu meat viande 4.1) Tera (Newman) ɮu meat 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮu meat

5Proto-Sukur *ɮɨwɨɗ ʸ meat viande 5.1) Sukur (David) ɬuwij meat 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮui meat; is the general term for meat; the flesh of an animals or a birds eating as food.

6Proto-Hurza *ɬɨwaɗ ʸ meat viande 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɬuweɗ meat viande 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɬūwé meat viande

7Proto-Mandara *ɬɨwɨɗ ʸ meat viande 7.1) Matal (Branger) ɬəb meat viande 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɬəɓa,-ə viande 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) hjua viande (f) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) hjuwa meat, flesh 7.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɬùwa meat 7.5.1) Glavda (Owens) ł meat

8Proto-Mofu *ɬɨw meat viande 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɬū meat viande 8.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑɬu flesh ; meat viande; chaire 8.3) Mada (Nkoumou) osɬo viande 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɬú viande f. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɬo meat viande 8.6) Merey (Gravina) ɬaw viande 8.6.1) Merey (Gravina) ɮaw meat viande 8.6.2) Merey (Gravina) ɬo viande 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɬaw meat viande 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɬàw viande 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) aɬaw meat viande, chair animale (viande ou poisson)

9Proto-Lamang *ɬɨʔʷi meat viande 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɬùw meat 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɬuʼi meat la viande

10Proto-Higi *ɬɨj meat viande 10.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɬji meat; flesh 10.2) Kirya (Blench) ɬè meat 10.3) Psikye (Angelo) ɬi meat

11Proto-Kotoko Island *hu meat viande 11.1) Buduma (McKone) meat viande

12Proto-Kotoko North *ɬɨw meat viande 12.1) Mpade (Allison) ʃú meat viande 12.2) Malgbe (Allison) ɬu meat viande

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɬɨw meat viande 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬu meat viande 13.2) Mser (Allison) su meat viande

14Proto-Kotoko South *asu meat viande 14.1) Zina (Odden) àsú meat viande

15Proto-Musgum *ɬɨwɨt meat viande 15.1) Vulum (Tourneux) ɬuk viande 15.2) Mbara (Tourneux) ɬuk meat 15.3) Muskum (Tourneux) ɬuwut viande

16Proto-Gidar *ɬɨwɨ meat viande 16.1) Gidar (Schuh) ɬuwa/0 viande 16.2) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬuwa viande