ɮ


ɮaɓaj adj. left gauche (6 groups, 10 languages) A syn: gʷɨla.
This root is one of two well-attested roots for 'left'. There are very few changes that have taken place.

1Proto-Daba *ɮaɓaj left gauche 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) ɮàɓāj ; a̍ ɮāɓáj à gauche

2Proto-Sukur *ɮaɓaj left gauche 2.1) Sukur (David) ri ɮabaj left (hand) 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮaɓai left:- on the left side

3Proto-Mandara *ɮaɓa left gauche 3.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɮáɓa,-i main gauche, gaucher 3.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) harə́ ɮáɓa main gauche 3.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) naaɮaɓa gauche (f) 3.2.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) naɮaɓa gauche 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ərva na dhlaba left-hand 3.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) nadhlaba left-hand person 3.3.2) Malgwa (Löhr) nathlaɓa left 3.4) Glavda (Owens) ÿa side, left 3.4.1) Glavda (Owens) ÿa side, left 3.4.2) Glavda (Owens) də́vá ÿéβa left hand 3.4.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) dᵊvā ʝáɓa left (direction) 3.5) Dghwede (Frick) dəvə ɮaʔa left (hand)

4Proto-Lamang *ɮaɓa left gauche 4.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɮaɓa left gauche

5Proto-Higi *ɮeɓi left gauche 5.1) Bana (Lienhard) ɮèɓ(i) gauche

6Proto-Gidar *ɮabaj left gauche 6.1) Gidar (Hungerford) vaaɮabaj (à) gauche
ɮɨɗɨm num. five cinq (7 groups, 25 languages) B syn: hʷɨtif, ɬensi.
This root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains and the Eastern Plains, though not in the Hurza or Daba groups. The initial *ɮ is devoiced in the Musgum and Gidar groups. In Gidar this is a regular change, but it is irregular in Proto-Musgum. *ɗ is reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Mandara, Maroua, Musgum and Gidar groups. In Proto-Mandara there was a regular change *m→w word-final, but Podoko retains /m/ here. In Mandara, Malgwa, Glavda and Dghwede the *w has fused with *ɗ to form /ɓ/, which is a regular sporadic process. In the Maroua group, the Mbazla data includes /ⁿd/ as an irregular reflex of *ɗ. In the Musgum and Gidar groups, there is /ʔ/ as a reflex of *ɗ which is a common sporadic change. There is no language where *ɗ is retained as /ɗ/, but the evidence justifies the reconstruction of *ɗ. *i is reconstructed in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It is possible that *i should be reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, but more data would be necessary to justify this.

1Proto-Mafa *ɮam five cinq 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮám cinq 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɮam five (5) cinq (5)

2Proto-Sukur *ɮam five cinq 2.1) Sukur (David) ɮam five 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) ɮamɮam five:- five for counting things.

3Proto-Mandara *ɮiɗɨm five cinq 3.1) Matal (Branger) əɮu, əɮəw five cinq 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɮama,-ə cinq 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) íɮeɓe cinq 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) iidhləbe five 3.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɮᵊɓa five (5) 3.6) Dghwede (Frick) ɮipʼe five

4Proto-Mofu *ɮɨm five cinq 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɮàm five cinq 4.2) Muyang (Smith) ɮam five cinq 4.3) Mada (Nkoumou) zɮàm, ázɮàmá cinq 4.4) Moloko (Friesen) ɮom five cinq 4.5) Zulgo (Haller) əɮəm cinq 4.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮəm five cinq 4.7) Merey (Gravina) ɮam five (5) cinq (5) 4.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮam five (5) cinq (5) 4.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɮàm (num.) cinq 4.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ɮam cinq

5Proto-Maroua *ɮiⁿdam five cinq 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɮùm cinq, 5 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɮom five (5) cinq (5) 5.3) Mbazla (SILSurvey) lǐdāmuʼ five cinq 5.3.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɮiⁿdam cinq

6Proto-Musgum *ʔɨɬɨm ʸ five cinq 6.1) Vulum (Tourneux) ɬim cinq 6.2) Mbara (Tourneux) ʼiɬim five

7Proto-Gidar *ɬaʔ ʸ five cinq 7.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬeʼ cinq
ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸ nf. camel chameau (14 groups, 32 languages) A syn: kaligimo, ᵑgʲaluba.
This root has come into Central Chadic from the Berber *alɣʷəm. The change from Berber *l to *ɮ is consistent with a considerable degree of time depth, since it implies that the word was adopted before the creation of *l in Proto-Central Chadic North. This conflicts with evidence from archaeology, which leads to a more recent date for the arrival of the camel in the Central Chadic region. The *ɮ is realised as *l in Proto-Kotoko Island, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum, and is devoiced in Proto-Higi and Proto-Gidar. The change in Proto-Gidar is a regular change, but the change is unestablished in the other groups. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is inconsistent. The prosody is present in Jimi in the Bata group, and in the Hurza and Mofu groups, but is absent in other groups where it would be expected. There is support from the *i in Proto-Tera and Proto-Higi, the *e in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North and from some languages in the Mandara group.

1Proto-Bata *ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸ camel chameau 1.1) Bata (Boyd) lùkʷàpto camel 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ligʷamən Chameau 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) ɮəᵑgume le chameau

2Proto-Daba *ɮakama ʷ camel chameau 2.1) Daba (Lienhard) ɮòkòmò le chameau

3Proto-Tera *ɮimox camel chameau 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ɮimokh camel

4Proto-Sukur *ɮɨgʷam camel chameau 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) ɮəgʷam camel: is an animal with a long neck and a hump on its back. it is used for carring goods and for ridding.

5Proto-Hurza *ɮɨgʷama ʸ camel chameau 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɮugʷeme camel (occasional visitor from Chad) chameau (vient rarement de Tchad) 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) áɮə̀gʷèmè camel chameau

6Proto-Margi *ɮɨgʷam camel chameau 6.1) Bura (Blench) likamo Camel 6.2) Margi South (Harley) ɮugʷam camel

7Proto-Mandara *ɮɨgʷamɨ camel chameau 7.1) Matal (Branger) ɮəgʷməj, ɮəgʷmi, ɮugmi camel chameau 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɮə́gʷama,-ə chameau 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) éɮegʷame chameau (m) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ədhlugʷame camel 7.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) áɮgʷàma camel 7.6) Dghwede (Frick) ɮugʷama camel

8Proto-Mofu *ɮɨgʷama ʸ camel chameau 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) áɮə̀gʷèmè camel chameau 8.2) Muyang (Smith) eɮiɡwemi camel chameau 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) eɮegʷeme camel chameau 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) ɮìgʷìmè chameau m. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮegume camel chameau 8.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ɮugme chameau 8.6) Merey (Gravina) ɮəgʷeme camel chameau 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮegʷeme camel chameau 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɮèg[ivèmè dromadaire 8.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ɮèg[ivèmè chameau 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ɬagʷama dromadaire, chameau

9Proto-Maroua *ɮɨgama ʷ camel chameau 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɮogomo (Mt), ɮogomoŋ (Mj), aɮogomoŋ (Mv) dromadaire 9.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼaɮgomo chameau, dromadaire

10Proto-Higi *ɬɨgʷami camel chameau 10.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) thəgʷami camel

11Proto-Kotoko Island *logʷɨme camel chameau 11.1) Buduma (McKone) loguəme; loguəmema camel chameau 11.2) Buduma (McKone) logume chameau.

12Proto-Kotoko North *logome camel chameau 12.1) Malgbe (Allison) logome camel chameau

13Proto-Musgum *lukma camel chameau 13.1) Mbara (Tourneux) lukma dromedary dromadaire, chameau

14Proto-Gidar *ɬagama ʷ camel chameau 14.1) Gidar (Hungerford) ɬogomo chameau
ɮɨwɨn n. fear peur (6 groups, 16 languages)
The reflexes of this root are largely regular. Word-final *n→r in Proto-Mofu as part of a regular process. There are several examples of the irregular loss of the *n, and an interesting instance of reduplication in Podoko. The *i in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, and the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Mofu may indicate that the palatalisation prosody should be reconstructed, though the Mafa, Hurza and Maroua data does not give support.

1Proto-Mafa *ɮaw fear peur 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ɮáw peur

2Proto-Hurza *ɮɨwan fear peur 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɮawan fear peur 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɮùŋgʷàts fear ; be frightened craindre 2.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) ɮə̀ᵑgùtsà frighten effrayer

3Proto-Mandara *ɮɨɮɨwi fear peur 3.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɮɨ́ɮəwe,-i peur

4Proto-Mofu *ɮɨwɨr ʸ fear peur 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ɮə̀ŋàts be afraid craindre 4.2) Mada (Nkoumou) máɮàwàl craindre 4.2.1) Mada (Nkoumou) maɮawa craindre 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) ɮaw fear craindre 4.4) Merey (Gravina) ɮuwer fear (n) crainte 4.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɮuwer (be) afraid (avoir) peur 4.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) méɮùrèj craindre 4.6.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) méɮùrèj avoir peur 4.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɮúr craindre, avoir peur, effrayer

5Proto-Maroua *ɮɨwɨn fear peur 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ɮuwun ti avoir peur, craindre, être angoissé 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɮuwan fear (n) craindre 5.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ɮuwan (be) afraid (avoir) peur 5.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ɮaw craindre

6Proto-Lamang *ɮɨwiŋ fear peur 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɮuwiŋ fear 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɮəŋ fear la peur 6.2.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɮəŋaj to fear craindre