ᵑgʷ


ᵑgʷɨ nf. faeces selles (6 groups, 11 languages) C syn: ɣʷɨvi, zaj.
This is one of a small number of roots reconstructed with *ᵑgʷ. It is one of three well-attested roots for 'faeces'. In the Kotoko-North group, *ᵑgʷ has become /ᵑᵐg͡b/ in Malgbe and possibly Afade. The related change
*gʷ→g͡b is regular in Malgbe.

1Proto-Tera *ᵑgin faeces selles 1.1) Tera (Newman) ᵑgin faeces 1.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ᵑgin excrement, faeces

2Proto-Higi *gʲʷɨ faeces selles 2.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) gjwə feaces/excrement. 2.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) wɣə excrement; faeces; feces; dung; excreta

3Proto-Kotoko Island *nɨᵑgʷɨ faeces selles 3.1) Buduma (McKone) nuᵑgu selles, défécation.

4Proto-Kotoko North *eᵑgʷɨ excrement excrément 4.1) Afade (Allison) emɓo ([ɛᵑgbo])? excrement excrément 4.2) Mpade (Allison) èᵑgù excrement excrément 4.3) Malgbe (Allison) fɨɗa; emgbɨ excrement excrément

5Proto-Kotoko Centre *ᵑgʷɨ faeces excrément 5.1) Lagwan (Allison) ᵑgu excrement excrément 5.2) Mser (Allison) eᵑgo excrement excrément

6Proto-Kotoko South *dɨɣʷɨn faeces selles 6.1) Mazera (Allison) duɣun excrement excrément
ᵑgʷɨrhak n. crow corbeau (11 groups, 28 languages) C
This root denotes the pied crow, and is onomatopoeic in origin, resembling the call of the crow. Given the relationships between the forms that are attested, the word may have been coined at an early time.

1Proto-Bata gʷahak crow corbeau 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ɣàaká -ə crow 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) mə̀gʷàʼ ákə crow. 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) kʷaa corbeau 1.3) Bata (Boyd) gàlike crow

2Proto-Daba ᵑgɨrhak crow corbeau 2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ᵑgrɑk crow corbeau 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) məŋɡarhax crow corbeau 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) ᵑgə̀ràn ᵑgə̄rák le corbeau

3Proto-Mafa ᵑgawak crow corbeau 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) maᵑgawak crow corbeau

4Proto-Tera kʷaɣi crow corbeau 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) kʷaɣi crow

5Proto-Hurza ᵑgahak crow corbeau 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ᵑgahak crow corbeau

6Proto-Mandara *ɣɨɣakrɨ crow corbeau 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) həhaká,-ə corbeau 6.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʁáʁàxɾa crow

7Proto-Mofu *ᵑgahak crow corbeau 7.1) Mada (Nkoumou) ᵑgàwàk corbeau pie 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) məᵑgahak crow corbeau(esp.) 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) ᵑgaák corbeau m. sp. 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) ᵑgaʼak crow corbeau 7.5) Merey (Gravina) maᵑgəhak crow corbeau 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) məᵑgahak crow corbeau 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) máᵑgə̀hák corbeau 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ᵑgaak ᵑgaak cri du Corbeau pie 7.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maᵑgahak Corbeau pie

8Proto-Maroua gahak crow corbeau 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) məgahak crow corbeau 8.2) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) maga̧ga̧k, magakgak (magaᵑgaŋ) corbeau-corneille d'Afrique (237)

9Proto-Kotoko North *hagɨ crow corbeau 9.1) Afade (Allison) hagɨ crow corbeau 9.2) Malgbe (Allison) hagɨ crow corbeau 9.3) Mpade (Allison) hagɨ crow corbeau

10Proto-Kotoko Centre *nɣakɨ crow corbeau 10.1) Mser (Allison) ᵑgaɣɨ crow corbeau 10.2) Lagwan (Allison) nɣakɨ crow corbeau

11Proto-Gidar gaᵑgraka crow corbeau 11.1) Gidar (Hungerford) gaᵑgraka corbeau

12Kanuri ᵑgágə /// ᵑgɑ́gә̀ crow corbeau
ᵑgʷɨs nf. woman femme (5 groups, 17 languages) C
This word covers the senses 'woman' and 'wife'. The final *s has the irregular reflex *z in Proto-Mafa. *ᵑgʷ has the unestablished reflexes *kʷ in Proto-Mandara, and *k in part of the Mofu group. It has been reanalysed as *n with a possible labialisation prosody in Proto-Tera, if indeed the Proto-Tera form is cognate.

1Proto-Mafa *ᵑgʷaz woman femme 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ŋgʷaz woman femme 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ŋgʷaz woman femme 1.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ŋgʷaz wife épouse

2Proto-Tera *nuʃu woman femme 2.1) Tera (Newman) nuʃu woman 2.1.1) Tera (Newman) nuʃuku women, woman (plural) 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) nusu woman 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) Nusu woman 2.2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) nokhzi wife 2.2.3) Nyimatli (Harley) nokhzi female

3Proto-Mandara *kʷɨsɨ woman femme 3.1) Matal (Branger) mi᷆ʃ woman femme 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) nəsá,-ə 1 femme 3.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) nəsá,-ə 2 femelle 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) mukse woman, female 3.4) Glavda (Owens) uu woman 3.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùːsa wife 3.4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùːsa woman 3.5) Dghwede (Frick) niʃe wife

4Proto-Mofu *ᵑgʷas, mɨkɨs woman femme 4.1) Zulgo (Haller) mə̀kə́s femme f., épouse f. 4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) məkas woman femme 4.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) məkas wife femme, épouse 4.3) Merey (Gravina) ŋgʷas woman femme 4.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) ŋgʷos wife femme, épouse 4.4.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) ŋgʷos woman femme 4.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) ŋgʷàs femme 4.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ŋgʷàs epoàuse 4.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ŋgʷas wife femme, épouse 4.6.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maᵑgusa femelle, femme

5Proto-Maroua *ᵑgʷas woman femme 5.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) gʷas woman femme 5.1.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) gʷas wife femme, épouse 5.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ᵑgas femme 5.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ᵑgǎsā woman femme
ᵑgʷɨts ʸ n. hair cheveux (5 groups, 17 languages) C syn: sɨᵐbɨti ʸ.
This is one of the few roots that contain *ᵑgʷ. The root is only attested in five groups, but these cover a wide area, possibly indicating a good time depth. The *ts has the irregular reflexes *s in Proto-Tera and *dz in Proto-Mandara.

1Proto-Mafa *ᵑgʷatsɨ hair cheveux 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) gʷátsə géɗ cheveux 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ŋgʷetʃ ta jaŋ hair (of head) cheveux (de tête)

2Proto-Tera *ɣʷasi hair cheveux 2.1) Tera (Newman) ɣos hair (of head); hair (of body); feather 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɣosi djin hair (of head) 2.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) weeʃa hair

3Proto-Mandara *gʷɨdzɨ ʸ hair cheveux 3.1) Matal (Branger) aŋidz, aŋidʒ hair cheveux 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ᵑgutsa,-ə cheveux 3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ugdʒe hair 3.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) gùd͡ʒa hair (of head) 3.5) Dghwede (Frick) guⁿdza hair

4Proto-Mofu *aᵑgʷɨts ʸ hair cheveux 4.1) Muyang (Smith) eŋɡʉtʃ hair on body, fur, feathers 4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) aᵑgʉz hair poil 4.3) Merey (Gravina) məkʷes cheveux 4.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) aŋgʷetʃ hair (of head) cheveux (de tête) 4.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) éŋgʷetʃ poils, cheveux, chevelure, crinière

5Proto-Maroua *ᵑgʷɨtsɨ ʸ hair cheveux 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ngʷitʃi poil, cheveux 5.2) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ᵑgùzóʼ hair (on head) cheveux (chevelure)