ⁿd


ⁿda v. to swallow avaler (7 groups, 16 languages) A syn: sɨɗɨk.
This is one of the few roots reconstructed with *ⁿd. There is some variation in the vowel, but otherwise the root is stable.

1Proto-Bata *ⁿda swallow avaler 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ⁿda swallow 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ⁿdan Avaler ;

2Proto-Sukur *ⁿdam swallow avaler 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) ⁿdam to swallow;- to swallow something like tablets.

3Proto-Mandara *ⁿdɨ swallow avaler 3.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) ⁿdé avaler, engloutir - v. int. = ndánde 3.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ⁿde swallow, consume 3.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ⁿdᵊga swallow

4Proto-Mofu *ⁿda swallow avaler 4.1) Moloko (Friesen) ⁿdawaj swallow avaler 4.2) Zulgo (Haller) ⁿde avaler 4.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) méⁿdēj avaler, 4.3.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) méⁿdēj manger sans macher 4.3.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) méⁿdēj manger gloutonnement 4.3.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) méⁿdēj avaler des graines (oiseau) 4.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ⁿd ́ swallow avaler ; picorer des graines (oiseaux) 4.4.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ⁿd ́ (sens fig.) être gourmand

5Proto-Maroua *ⁿdi swallow avaler 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ⁿdi engloutir, noyer 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ⁿdi avaler 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ⁿdi goɗ swallow avaler

6Proto-Lamang *ⁿda swallow avaler 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) ⁿda swallow 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ⁿdaj to swallow avaler

7Proto-Higi *ⁿda swallow avaler 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ⁿdá Swallow 7.2) Kirya (Blench) ⁿdà swallow
ⁿdɨw nm. human être humain (9 groups, 21 languages) A cf: zɨɗɨr ʸ.
This root has the basic meaning of 'a human being' and is not gender specific. It is one of only four roots reconstructed with *ⁿd. The final *w has the reflexes *u and the labialisation prosody, both common sporadic changes. There has been metathesis of the two consonants in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Higi, which is also a common sporadic change.

1Proto-Bata *ɨⁿdɨw person personne 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ə̀ⁿdá - ə someone, person, human being 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) ⁿdu personne, homme

2Proto-Mafa *ⁿda ʷ person personne 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ⁿdo homme(generique) 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ⁿdah people personnes 2.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ⁿda person personne 2.2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ⁿdana person personne

3Proto-Tera *ⁿdɨkʷɨ person personne 3.1) Tera (Newman) ⁿdukku person (plural) 3.1.1) Tera (Newman) ⁿduku person 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ⁿduku human being, person 3.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ⁿdukh man.people

4Proto-Sukur *ⁿdɨw person personne 4.1) Sukur (David) ⁿda person 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) ⁿdu person 4.3) Sukur (David) ⁿdu person

5Proto-Margi *ⁿdu person personne 5.1) Kilba (Schuh) ⁿdu/ə person

6Proto-Mandara *wɨⁿdɨ person personne 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) məⁿda,-ə personne, quelqu'un 6.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ⁿda people, persons 6.3) Glavda (Owens) uu person 6.3.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùda human being, person 6.4) Dghwede (Frick) wude person

7Proto-Mofu *ⁿdaw person personne 7.1) Merey (Gravina) ⁿdo person homme, personne, être humaine 7.2) Merey (Gravina) ⁿdo quelqu'un 7.3) Dugwor (Jubumna) wdaw person personne 7.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdàw homme 7.4.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdàw être humain 7.4.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) ⁿdàw gens 7.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ⁿdaw man homme, être humain, gens

8Proto-Lamang *mɨⁿdu person personne 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) ùⁿdù person 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) məⁿdu man l'homme

9Proto-Higi *wɨⁿdɨ person personne 9.1) Kirya (Blench) ⁿdə̀ person, people 9.1.1) Kirya (Blench) ⁿdə́ man, person, human being 9.2) Psikye (Angelo) wuⁿdú person 9.2.1) Psikye (Angelo) ⁿdə he, she, it, person