gʷavan nm. spitting cobra cobra cracheur (6 groups, 14 languages) A
This root is attested in the Mandara Mountains area. The labialisation of *gʷ has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Daba and Proto-Maroua. The final *n is [ŋ] in almost all languages, most of which have this change as a regular feature. However in the Mofu group languages, word-final *n should have the reflex *r. This implies that the root has been borrowed into the Mofu group.

1Proto-Daba *gavan ʷ cobra cobra 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɡovoŋ spitting cobra cobra 1.2) Daba (Lienhard) gòvòm naja (espèce de serpent noir qui jette la salive)

2Proto-Mafa *gʷɨvan cobra cobra 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) guvaŋ spitting cobra cobra

3Proto-Hurza *gʷavan cobra cobra 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) gulguvon cobra cobra crachant 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) gàvàŋ fìgè cobra cobra

4Proto-Mofu *gʷavaŋ cobra cobra 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) gàvàŋ serpent sp.; serpent gris foncé, long, vénimeux 4.2) Muyang (Smith) ɡɑvɑŋ Black-Necked Spitting Cobra, or any large snake cobra (ou tout grand serpent) 4.3) Zulgo (Haller) gàvàŋ serpent m. sp. 4.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) gavaŋ spitting cobra cobra 4.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) golgavan j fətaŋ spitting cobra cobra 4.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) gʷáváŋ serpent (nom gén.) 4.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) gʷávaŋʷ naja (serpent)

5Proto-Maroua *gavan ʷ cobra cobra 5.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) govon spitting cobra cobra

6Proto-Higi *gʷavaŋ cobra cobra 6.1) Bana (Lienhard) gʷávàŋ esp de serpent, noir, habite près des marigots, aggressif, mais sans vénin
gʷɨɗɨɮ nm. belch éructer (11 groups, 23 languages) C rel. to: hʷɨɗɨɬ ʸ.
This root is very difficult to reconstruct. The most secure part of the root is the *ɮ, which is present in all reflexes, though it is devoiced in Proto-Kotoko North. The voiced fricatives *z and *v are devoiced in Proto-North Kotoko-Musgum, so this may be part of a general devoicing of fricatives. In many languages there is a glottal element, and in many there is a voiced velar. In Mbudum and Giziga Moutourwa there is evidence for three consonants in the root. The initial consonant is reconstructed as *gʷ. The labialisation is retained in Mafa, Bura and Margi, and is vocalised in Hdi. The *g is retained in Mbudum, Mafa, Matal, Glavda, Ouldeme and Mada. In Hdi it has become /ŋ/, and in Giziga Moutourwa it has become /ʔ/. These are unestablished changes. In the Margi group the *gʷ and *ɗ have merged, creating /ɓʷ/ and /ʔʷ/, which is a common sporadic process. The *ɗ is retained in several languages, and in Mbudum, Gemzek, Merey and Giziga Moutourwa it has the reflex /r/, which is an unestablished change. In Kotoko North is has fused with *ɬ to create the ejective *ɬʼ. As one might expect, the root for 'belch' is the voiced equivalent of the root for 'cough'.

1Proto-Daba *gɨɗɨɮ belch éructer 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɗɑɮ belch éructer, rôter 1.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ŋɡəɾɮ belch éructer, rôter

2Proto-Mafa *gʷɨɗɨɮa belch éructer 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) guɮa rôter 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ɗaɮa belch éructer, rôter

3Proto-Hurza *ɗɨɮa belch éructer 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɗəɮe to belch roter 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ̀ɮànáŋà belch éructer

4Proto-Margi *ɮaɠʷi belch éructer 4.1) Bura (Blench) ɮàɓʷì To belch 4.2) Margi (Hoffman) ɮaʼwi to belch

5Proto-Mandara *gɨɮa belch éructer 5.1) Matal màɡɮáj belch éructer 5.2) Malgwa (Löhr) iidhla burp 5.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) gɨ̀ɮᵊga belch

6Proto-Mofu *gɨɗɨɮ belch éructer 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) gə̀ɮàj burp éructer ; rôter 6.2) Mada (Nkoumou) meᵑgɮea éructer, rôter 6.3) Zulgo (Haller) ɮeɮe roter 6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mereɮe belch éructer, rôter 6.5) Merey (Gravina) raɬ belch éructer, rôter 6.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ɗəɮ éructer

7Proto-Maroua *ʔɨrɮɨʔɨ ʸ belch éructer 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ʼirɮiʼi roter

8Proto-Lamang *ŋɨɮu belch éructer 8.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ŋəɮu to belch, to burp éructer, roter

9Proto-Higi *ɮi belch éructer 9.1) Bana (Lienhard) ɮí éructer, rôter

10Proto-Kotoko North *ɬʼa belch éructer 10.1) Afade (Allison) ɬʼe; ɬʼaun belch éructer, rôter 10.2) Mpade (Allison) là msʼò belch éructer, rôter 10.2.1) Mpade (Allison) msʼò burp rot

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *iɬi belch éructer 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) gel iɬi belch éructer, rôter
gʷɨla n. left gauche (8 groups, 17 languages) A syn: ɮaɓaj.
This root is unusual in that it is reconstructed with *l, although this phoneme is not reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic. There was a change *r to *l in the North sub-branch, which introduced the phoneme in those languages. However, here we have *l in the reconstructions for Proto-Daba, Proto-Mafa and Proto-Hurza, which are not in the North sub-branch. It is possible that this root spread from the North sub-branch to other languages. In Malgbe the labialisation has been lost from *gʷ, and in Lagwan it has the reflex /ɣ/, which is an unestablished change.

1Proto-Daba *gʷɨla left gauche 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɑ̄tɑ̄ rɑ̄ ɡʷʊ̀lɑ̀ left (direction) () gauche 1.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) abəɡula left (direction) (à) gauche

2Proto-Mafa *gʷɨla left gauche 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) gúlá gauche 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ha ta gula left (direction) (à) gauche

3Proto-Hurza *gʷɨla left gauche 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) gula left gauche 3.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) alaj gula gauche

4Proto-Mofu *gʷɨla left gauche 4.1) Moloko (Friesen) gəlo left gauche 4.1.1) Moloko (Friesen) gəlo miserable misérable 4.2) Zulgo (Haller) ⁿdá ahə́r gùla à gauche 4.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) i ahər gula left (direction) (à) gauche 4.4) Merey (Gravina) gula gauche 4.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) gula left (direction) (à) gauche 4.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) hār gùlá main gauche 4.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) hár-gula (main) gauche 4.7.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́gula gauche

5Proto-Maroua *gʷɨla left gauche 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) gula gauche 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) haŋ gula left (direction) (à) gauche

6Proto-Higi *gʷɨla left gauche 6.1) Psikye (Angelo) gʷəlá left

7Proto-Kotoko North *geli left gauche 7.1) Malgbe (Allison) a ɬe geli left (direction) (à) gauche

8Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɣɨlan left gauche 8.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɣɨlan left (direction) (à) gauche
gʷɨvɨh nm. field champ (8 groups, 27 languages) A syn: raj, sɨka, ɣʷɨr.
The basic meaning is the land where millet is cultivated. Apart from Gude, this root is not found in languages of the South sub-branch. The initial *gʷ has reduced to *w in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi, an unestablished change. In Proto-Bata and Proto-Margi, the same process resulted in a detached labialisation component, which attached to the *v in Proto-Bata and the *h in Proto-Margi, resulting in *kʷ. In Proto-Margi, *v has the regular reflex *f. The final *h has also been lost in several languages.

1Proto-Bata *vʷɨ field champ 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ùuzànvʷá -ə communal farming

2Proto-Hurza *gʷɨvɨh field champ 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) guvo field champ 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kùvàk field ; farm champ ; ferme

3Proto-Margi *fakʷ field champ 3.1) Bura (Blench) faku Farm; field; garden 3.2) Margi (Hoffman) fa farm 3.3) Margi South (Harley) fa farm 3.4) Kilba (Schuh) fa farm

4Proto-Mandara *gʷɨvɨh field champ 4.1) Matal (Branger) gʷəf // guf field champ 4.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) və́hʷa,-u champ 4.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) champ (m) 4.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ukfe farm 4.4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) fe farm 4.5) Glavda (Owens) gif field, place on farm where grain gathered 4.5.1) Glavda (Owens) gʷu farm 4.5.2) Glavda (Owens) gʷu farm 4.5.3) Glavda (Owens) vaava field, place

5Proto-Mofu *gʷɨvɨh field champ 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āvùhʷ field champ 5.2) Mada (Nkoumou) wvah champs 5.3) Moloko (Friesen) gəvah field champ 5.4) Zulgo (Haller) gùvàh champ (m.) cultivé 5.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) guvah fields champs 5.6) Merey (Gravina) guvah champ 5.6.1) Merey (Gravina) guvah champ 5.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) guva fields champs

6Proto-Maroua *gʷɨva field champ 6.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) guva champ 6.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) guva fields champs

7Proto-Lamang *wɨvah field champ 7.1) Lamang (Wolff) úvàha field, farm 7.2) Hdi (Bramlett) vwah field le champ

8Proto-Higi *wɨvɨhɨ field champ 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vʷə 1. farm. 2.friend. 8.2) Kirya (Blench) nvʷə̀kə́ farm 8.2.1) Kirya (Blench) nvə̀kə́ farm 8.3) Psikye (Angelo) wuvə farm, (field) 8.4) Bana (Lienhard) və̀xə́ champ