g


gaᵑga n. small drum petit tambour (16 groups, 30 languages) A cf: daŋ.
This is a widespread shared root that does not go back to proto-Central Chadic. It spread with the introduction of the instrument in question.

1Proto-Bata *gaᵑga drum tambour 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) gàᵑgá drum 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) gaᵑga tamtam, tambour

2Proto-Daba *kaᵑgaŋ medium-sized drum tambour moyen 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) kɑᵑgɑŋ drum, medium sized tambour moyen

3Proto-Mafa *gaᵑga small two-skinned drum petit tambour à deux peaux 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) gaᵑga tambour à deux peaux 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) gaᵑgaŋ small drum petit tambour

4Proto-Tera *gʷɨgaŋ big drum grand tambour 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) gugaᵑg big(gest) drum

5Proto-Hurza *gaᵑga drum tam-tam 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) gaᵑgan drum tam-tam 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) gàŋkà drum ; tom tom tam-tam

6Proto-Margi *gaᵑga drum tambour 6.1) Bura (Blench) gaᵑga Drum Generic term for any drum Also applied specifically to the two-headed, barrel-shaped drum with snares beaten with a hooked stick and hand 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) kaᵑga drum

7Proto-Mandara *gaᵑga drum tambour 7.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) gáŋəka tam-tam 7.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) gaᵑga tamtam (m) 7.3) Malgwa (Löhr) gaᵑga drum gen. 7.4) Glavda (Owens) gaŋ drum

8Proto-Mofu *gaᵑgaŋ drum tambout 8.1) Muyang (Smith) ɡɑŋ-ɡɑŋ tambour, tam-tam (mot général) 8.2) Moloko (Friesen) gəᵑgan drum tambour 8.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) gaŋaŋ small drum petit tambour 8.3.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) gagaŋ tamtam 8.4) Merey (Gravina) gaᵑgaŋ small drum petit tambour, tam-tam 8.4.1) Merey (Gravina) gaŋaŋ tam-tam 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) gàᵑgàŋ tambour 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́gaᵑgaŋ tambour

9Proto-Maroua *gaᵑgaŋ medium drum tambour moyen 9.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) gaᵑgaŋ medium drum tambour moyen

10Proto-Lamang *gaᵑga drum tambour 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) gaᵑga drum

11Proto-Higi *gaᵑga small drum petit tambour 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) gaᵑga drum 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) gaᵑga small(est) drum

12Proto-Kotoko Island *gaᵑga small drum petit tambour 12.1) Buduma (McKone) gaᵑga tamtam.

13Proto-Kotoko North *gaᵑga drum tambour 13.1) Afade (Allison) gaᵑgan drum (sp.) tambour (sp.) 13.2) Mpade (Allison) kàᵑgá drum (sp.) tambour (sp.)

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *gaᵑga small drum petit tambour 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) gaᵑga small drum petit tambour

15Proto-Musgum *gaᵑga drum tambour 15.1) Mbara (Tourneux) gaᵑga drum (sp.) tambour d'aisselle

16Proto-Gidar *gaᵑga small drum petit tambour 16.1) Gidar (Hungerford) gaᵑga tam-tam, tamtam, tambour

17Kanuri gaᵑgá small drum petit tambour 17.1) Kanuri gaᵑgá drum (sp.) tambour (sp.)

18Hausa gàᵑgáa small drum petit tambour 18.1) Hausa gàᵑgáa drum (sp.) tambour (sp.)
gɨr v. grow grandir (12 groups, 32 languages) A
The basic meaning is to grow with age, as a child does. It can also be used in many languages for rearing livestock. The *r has the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also Proto-Daba. The *g has the reflex *ɣ in Proto-Hurza, and *k in Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi. These are unestablished changes.

1Proto-Bata *gɨr grow grandir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) gərə grow, mature, become tall. 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) gərən Grandir ; 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) a gəlkən grandir

2Proto-Daba *gɨl grow grandir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) gɑl grow up grandir 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) gɑl raise élever 2.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ᵑgɑl grow old devenir vieux 2.1.3) Buwal (Viljoen) gɑ̀l ᵐbò bring up (a child) élever (un enfant) 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) gəl grow up grandir 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) gəl enlargen agrandir 2.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) gəl raise élever 2.2.3) Gavar (Viljoen) gəl domesticate, tame domestiquer, apprivoiser 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ɡəl grow up grandir 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəɡil bring up (a child) élever (un enfant) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) gə̄l grandir, croître ; élever 2.4.1) Daba (Lienhard) gə̀là protèger ; élever

3Proto-Mafa *gɨra grow grandir 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) gəla grow up grandir 3.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) gal ⁿda bring up (a child) élever (un enfant)

4Proto-Tera *gor grow grandir 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) gori grow up 4.1.1) Nyimatli (Harley) gor grow (of plants)

5Proto-Sukur *gɨr grow grandir 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) gər grow; to increase in size, to become bigger or taller and develop into an adult, to become longer by not cutting it.

6Proto-Hurza *ɣɨra grow grandir 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) har to grow bigger grandir 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɣə̀rà grow ; increase grandir ; croître 6.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) gə̀rà raise cattle ; rear cattle élever_le_bétail 6.2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ɣàlà grow old ; age vieillir

7Proto-Margi *kila grow grandir 7.1) Bura (Blench) kila To grow

8Proto-Mandara *gɨla grow grandir 8.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) gə́la grandir 8.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) gélá nourrir, élever

9Proto-Mofu *gɨl grow grandir 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) gə̄léŋ raise animals éléver le bétail ; nourrir 9.2) Muyang (Smith) ɡɑl bring up ; feed élever 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) magla coaguler 9.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) magla éléver 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) gar grow up grandir; grossir 9.5) Zulgo (Haller) gə̀l bá devenir grand, grandir, grossir 9.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) gəl grow up grandir 9.6.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) megəle éléver 9.7) Merey (Gravina) gəl grow up grandir 9.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) məgəlej grow up grandir 9.8.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) məgəlej bring up (a child) élever (un enfant) 9.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) mégə̀lèj grandir, pousser, élever 9.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́gəl raise grandir, pousser, élever (un enfant, un animal) 9.10.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́gəl (fig.) devenir grave, aggraver

10Proto-Maroua *gɨl grow grandir 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) gil grandir, faire grandir, élever, engraisser 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) gəl grow up grandir 10.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) gla goɗ bring up (a child) élever (un enfant)

11Proto-Lamang *gɨla grow grandir 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) gla grow 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) galaj to raise élever 11.2.1) Hdi (Bramlett) gəlaj to grow grandir 11.2.2) Hdi (Bramlett) halaj to grow old vieillir

12Proto-Higi *kɨl grow grandir 12.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kəlo grow (of plants) 12.2) Kirya (Blench) kə̀l nurse, grow 12.3) Bana (Lienhard) k(ə̀)lì grandir, croître, faire grandir, augmenter les paroles, élever les animaux
gɨwɨn n. elephant éléphant (2 groups, 7 languages) D syn: ᵐbɨlala ʸ, dzɨwɨn ʸ, nɨvi.
This root is only found in two groups, and it is not possible to be certain that the forms in the two groups are indeed cognate. The final *n in the Mandara group is surprising, as Proto-Central Chadic *n has the reflex *r in word-final position in this group.

1Proto-Mandara *gɨwɨn elephant éléphant 1.1) Matal (Branger) gawan elephant éléphant 1.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) gʷíhana,-ə éléphant 1.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) gúé éléphant (m) 1.4) Malgwa (Löhr) guwe elephant 1.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) gùna elephant

2Proto-Kotoko South *gʷagʷe elephant éléphant 2.1) Zina (Odden) gʷàgʷi elephant éléphant 2.2) Mazera (Allison) gʷagʷe elephant éléphant
gɨʔʷ n. hole trou (4 groups, 11 languages) C syn: vɨgɨɗ ʸ.
This root is found in the Nigerian Plains area. It is reconstructed with *ʔʷ, though this phoneme is not reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic. As such it represents a provisional reconstruction until more data is available. The *g has the reflex *k in Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi, both of which are unestablished changes.

1Proto-Bata *gɨʔʷ hole trou 1.1) Bata (Boyd) gʷe hole 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) guʼun Le trou 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) gʷəʼə trou

2Proto-Tera *gʷa hole trou 2.1) Tera (Newman) gʷa hole 2.1.1) Tera (Newman) gʷa obtain 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) gʷa den, lair, hole 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ge hole

3Proto-Margi *kaʔʷ hole trou 3.1) Bura (Blench) ku Hole in the ground 3.2) Margi South (Harley) kàu hole 3.3) Kilba (Schuh) kaʼu hole

4Proto-Higi *kɨʔʷ hole trou 4.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) hole; nest 4.2) Kirya (Blench) ɣàw hole 4.3) Bana (Lienhard) kə́ʼú trou san issue