kʷaɗah v. boil bouillir (9 groups, 20 languages) A
The basic sense of this word is to cook by boiling. In most cases it is a transitive verb with a person being the agent and the liquid being the patient. *kʷ is retained in all groups, though the labialisation has been lost in a few languages (a sporadic process). The *ɗ→r in Tera is an unestablished process. *h is widely retained, which is unusual, and has the irregular reflex /s/ in Bachama. Two groups have palatalisation in the forms given, but this may be a property of the citation form that is used rather than of the root itself.

1Proto-Bata *kʷaɗasa ʸ boil bouillir 1.1) Bachama (Skinner) kʷaɗjasa bubble

2Proto-Daba *kʷɨɗah ʸ boil bouillir 2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kjdeh boil (food) bouillir (la nourriture) 2.2) Daba (Lienhard) kùɗa̍j bouillir un liquide

3Proto-Mafa *kʷɨɗaha boil bouillir 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kuɗaha boil bouillir (la nourriture)

4Proto-Tera *kʷɨɗah boil bouillir 4.1) Tera (Newman) kuraxi boil 4.1.1) Nyimatli (Harley) kuɮakh boil (water), bubble up

5Proto-Hurza *kʷaɗah boil bouillir 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kʷaɗah to boil, dilute bouillir, diluer 5.1.1) Vame (Kinnaird) kʷāɗáhā boil ; simmer bouillir

6Proto-Margi *kʷɨdu boil bouillir 6.1) Bura (Blench) kudu Boil

7Proto-Mandara *kʷaɗah boil bouillir 7.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kʷaɗáha bouillir, cuire dans de l'eau bouillante 7.2) Malgwa (Löhr) kʷaɗa boil

8Proto-Mofu *kʷaɗah boil bouillir 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷàɗèhèŋ bouillir 8.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷàɗèhèŋ cuire longtemps 8.2) Muyang (Smith) koɗɑhɑj boil (trs) cuire; faire bouillir 8.3) Mada (Nkoumou) mákʷàɗàh cuire (faire-, mijoter longtemps) 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) kʷàɗàh bouillir, bouilloner 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) mekʷeɗehe bouillir 8.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) məkʷoɗehej ( jam ) bubble up, boil (water) bouillonner (l'eau) 8.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) mékʷèɗèhèj bouillir

9Proto-Lamang *kʷaɗah boil bouillir 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) kʷaɗah boil, heat, cook 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) kəɗahaj to boil bouillir
kʷar v. refuse refuser (8 groups, 12 languages) B
This root is found in a good selection of groups, but only in one or two languages in each group with the data available. The initial *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in many cases as a sporadic process. *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as expected.

1Proto-Bata *kar refuse refuser 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) kaaree refuse, reject 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) karanən Refuser ;

2Proto-Daba *kal refuse refuser 2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkɑl refuse refuser

3Proto-Sukur *kar refuse refuser 3.1) Sukur (David) kar refuse, to 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) kar refuse: to say that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do.

4Proto-Hurza *kɨra refuse refuser 4.1) Vame (Kinnaird) kə́rà miss refuser d'aller

5Proto-Mandara *kʷala refuse refuser 5.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kʷalá 1 refuser 5.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kʷalá 2 rejeter 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kʷala refuser

6Proto-Mofu *kʷal refuse refuser 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷàl refuser 6.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷàl ne devrait-il pas? 6.2) Muyang (Smith) kelej cut with axe couper; refuser 6.3) Merey (Gravina) kərah refuse refuser

7Proto-Lamang *kʷala refuse refuser 7.1) Hdi (Bramlett) kʷalaɣuta to refuse refuser

8Proto-Higi *kɨli refuse refuser 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kəljə refuse 8.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kə́rjə̀ refuse
kʷaraj n. rainbow, drought arc-en-ciel, sécheresse (5 groups, 17 languages) A
In most languages, this root has two senses: a rainbow; and a period of dry weather during rainy season. It is not obvious how the two senses are related, though the Giziga Moutourwa definition offers an interesting explanation. The root is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, leaving Mafa as the only language represented here to retain *r.

1Proto-Daba *kʷalaj rainbow arc-en-ciel 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) kʷɑlɑj drought, famine sécheresse, famine, disette 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) kʷɑlɑj rainbow arc-en-ciel 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkʷɑlɑj drought, famine sécheresse, famine, disette 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kolaj rainbow arc-en-ciel

2Proto-Mafa *kʷaraj rainbow arc-en-ciel 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kʷáráj arc-en-ciel 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) kʷalaj drought, famine sécheresse, famine, disette

3Proto-Hurza *kʷɨlaj rainbow arc-en-ciel 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kulaj rainbow, dry period during rainy season arc en ciel, sécheresse entre les pluies

4Proto-Mofu *kʷɨlaj, makɨlah rainbow arc-en-ciel 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mākʷālāj drought sécheresse ; périodes sèches de la saison des pluies 4.2) Muyang (Smith) mɑkʷɑl drought ; rainbow période de sécheresse après les premières sémailles: arc-en-ciel qui annonce soit une pluie immédiate, soit la sécheresse 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) kolaj rainbow arc en ciel 4.4) Zulgo (Haller) màkə̀làh arc-en-ciel m. 4.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kula rainbow arc-en-ciel 4.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) kula drought, famine sécheresse, famine, disette 4.5.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) makəlah rainbow arc-en-ciel 4.6) Merey (Gravina) makəlah sécheresse 4.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) kulaj rainbow arc-en-ciel 4.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) kʷálàj arc-en-ciel, arrêt entre deux pluies 4.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kʷalaj arc-en-ciel 4.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kʷalaj sécheresse en saison des pluies

5Proto-Maroua *kʷalaj rainbow arc-en-ciel 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kʷalaj (Mv kolaj) arc en ciel, le kwalay : arrête la pluie en pleine saison, même pendant 20 jours c'est le soleil qui se reflète sur de vieilles houes abandonnées en brousse, ce qui provoque l'arc-ce-ciel. il y a un grand serpent en haut ; s'il se roule sur lui-même il ne pleut pas ; s'il se déroule, il pleut (kaw madiëa) 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kʷalaj (Mv kolaj) empècher de pleuvoir 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kolaj rainbow arc-en-ciel 5.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kolaj drought, famine sécheresse, famine, disette
kʷasɨkʷa nm. market (n) marché (12 groups, 24 languages) B
This root derives ultimately from the Arabic 'suq', through Shoa Arabic 'sug' and Kanuri 'kasugu'. The back vowels are reinterpreted as labialisation of *k or *g. The Fulfulde word 'luumo' is replacing this root in many areas. There are no real indicators in the data of the age of this borrowing.

1Proto-Tera *kasu market marché 1.1) Hwana (Harley) kàsú market

2Proto-Sukur *sɨkʷɨ market marché 2.1) Sukur (David) suku market 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) səku market:- is a place where people gather to sell and buy things.

3Proto-Hurza *kasɨkʷa market marché 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kʷasuko market marché 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kāsúkā market marché

4Proto-Margi *sɨkʷɨ market marché 4.1) Kilba (Schuh) səku market

5Proto-Mandara *kʷasɨkʷa market marché 5.1) Matal (Branger) kʷasəkʷa // kosuka market marché 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kʷasákʷa,-a marché 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) kʷaskʷe market 5.4) Glavda (Owens) kású market, week 5.4.1) Glavda (Owens) kásúk market, business, week 5.4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kàsúkʷa market (n)

6Proto-Mofu *kʷasɨkʷa market marché 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷāskʷā market marché 6.2) Muyang (Smith) ɡosku marché, semaine 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) goskó (kosko) marché 6.4) Moloko (Friesen) kosoko market marché 6.5) Zulgo (Haller) kʷáskʷà semaine f. 6.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) kʷáskʷà marché m.

7Proto-Maroua *kaska ʷ market marché 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kosko market (n) marché

8Proto-Higi *sʲɨkʷɨ market marché 8.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ʃikʷi market 8.2) Psikye (Angelo) ʃkʷu market 8.2.1) Psikye (Angelo) ʃekʷu market

9Proto-Kotoko Island *kahagʷɨ market marché 9.1) Buduma (McKone) kaxaguə market (n) marché

10Proto-Kotoko North *kasɨgʷɨ market marché 10.1) Afade (Allison) gasɨbi market (n) marché 10.2) Mpade (Allison) kàsúgù market (n) marché 10.3) Malgbe (Allison) gegbɨ market (n) marché

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *kaskʷɨ market marché 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) kasku market (n) marché 11.2) Mser (Allison) kasku market (n) marché

12Proto-Musgum *kaskʷa market marché 12.1) Mbara (Tourneux) kasko market marché

13Kanuri kasúwu //// kāsugū market (n) marché

14Shoa Arabic sûg; sawaga market (n) marché
kʷɨhɨm n. mouse souris (8 groups, 21 languages) A syn: katakam, kʷɨsɨm.
This root is cognate with *kʷɨsɨm, though there isn't a regular change that accounts for the distribution of the two forms. The *kʷ has the unestablished reflex *ɣʷ in Proto-Tera. The labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in many Mofu group languages. The *h has been lost in several groups as a sporadic process, and has the irregular reflex *f in Matal, Muyang and Moloko.

1Proto-Bata *hʲɨmɨ mouse souris 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) hímà -ə mouse 1.2) Tsuvan (Johnston) himkən la souris

2Proto-Mafa *kʷama mouse souris 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kʷama souris

3Proto-Tera *ɣʷɨm mouse souris 3.1) Tera (Newman) ɣum mouse 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ɣum rat

4Proto-Sukur *kʷɨm mouse souris 4.1) Sukur (David) kum mouse 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) kum mouse; a small animal that is covered in fur and has a long thin tail. It lives in bush, people's house or where food is stored.

5Proto-Hurza *kʷɨham mouse souris 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kuhom mouse souris 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kʷàm mouse souris

6Proto-Mandara *kʷɨhɨm mouse souris 6.1) Matal (Branger) kʷəfu, kufu mouse souris 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kuma souris

7Proto-Mofu *kʷɨhɨm mouse souris 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kūm mouse souris 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑkfum mouse (general word) souris (mot général) 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) okfom mouse souris 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) kʷàhúm souris f. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kohom mouse souris 7.6) Merey (Gravina) kuhum mouse souris 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) kohom mouse souris 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) hʷàm souris 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ahʷam mouse souris (nom gén.)

8Proto-Higi *kʷɨm mouse souris 8.1) Psikye (Angelo) kʷu mouse 8.2) Bana (Lienhard) kúm souris
kʷɨkaɗ nf. baobab baobab (10 groups, 21 languages) B syn: ᵐbatuɓ.
This root may be borrowed from the Kanuri 'kalkuka', though it is more likely that the word was borrowed from Chadic languages by Kanuri since the forms that are attested in Central Chadic cannot easily be derived from *kuka. In addition, the Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang forms indicate that there was a glottal component in the word, which is not present in Kanuri. The labialisation has spread from the *kʷ onto the *k in several languages. The glottal component is accounted for by reconstructing a final *ɗ, though more evidence is needed before this can be established with confidence.

1Proto-Bata *kɨkɨʔʷ baobab baobab 1.1) Bata (Boyd) kawto baobab 1.1.1) Bata (Boyd) kaawe baobab 1.2) Bachama (Skinner) kawtœ, kœwe baobab tree 1.3) Gude (Hoskinson) kúkùʼ únə baobab tree 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) kəkəʼwə baobab 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) kukʷakən le baobab

2Proto-Tera *kʷɨka baobab baobab 2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) kuka baobab tree 2.2) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) kukʷata baobab

3Proto-Hurza *kʷakʷa baobab baobab 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) koko baobab 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kʷàkʷà tree type baobab

4Proto-Margi *kʷagʷɨ baobab baobab 4.1) Bura (Blench) kʷàgú Baobab monkey bread tree See also kogu Adansonia digitata 4.1.1) Bura (Blench) kogu Baobab tree cf. kwagu 4.2) Kilba (Schuh) gu baobab

5Proto-Mandara *kʷakʷa baobab baobab 5.1) Matal (Branger) makʷakʷa, makokʷa baobab baobab 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kʷakʷa baobab (m) ou feuille comestible de baobab 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) kʷakʷa, kokʷa tree sp., baobab, Adansonia digitata, baobab leaf 5.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kʷàkʷa baobab tree

6Proto-Mofu *kaka ʷ baobab baobab 6.1) Moloko (Friesen) koko tree baobab baobab

7Proto-Lamang *kaʔʷ baobab baobab 7.1) Hdi (Bramlett) kaʼu baobab tree le baobab

8Proto-Higi *kʷɨkʷɨ baobab baobab 8.1) Kirya (Blench) kúkù baobab 8.2) Bana (Lienhard) kʷə́kʷə̀ baobab, Adansonia digitala

9Proto-Kotoko North *kʷɨka baobab baobab 9.1) Afade (Allison) kuka baobab tree baobab

10Proto-Kotoko Centre *kʷɨka baobab baobab 10.1) Lagwan (Allison) kuka baobab tree baobab

11Hausa kúukà baobab tree baobab
kʷɨm num. ten dix (5 groups, 11 languages) C syn: hɨkan, kɨrɨw.
This is one of several roots for 'ten', and is the most likely to have been the Proto-Central Chadic root. The Nyimatli, Sukur and Hdi forms are possibly not cognate. In the Higi group there is sporadic metathesis in all languages except Kirya.

1Proto-Tera *kʷɨm ten dix 1.1) Nyimatli (Harley) gʷaᵑg ten (10) 1.2) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) kum ten

2Proto-Sukur *waŋ ten dix 2.1) Sukur (David) waŋ ten

3Proto-Margi *kʷɨma ten dix 3.1) Bura (Blench) kuma Ten 3.2) Margi South (Harley) kumou ten

4Proto-Lamang *ɣʷaŋ ten dix 4.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɣʷaŋ ten dix

5Proto-Higi *gʷɨm ten dix 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) mùᵑgə́ Ten 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) muᵑgə ten 5.3) Kirya (Blench) gùm ten 5.4) Psikye (Angelo) məŋ ten 5.4.1) Psikye (Angelo) məŋə́ ten 5.5) Bana (Lienhard) mə́ŋ dix
kʷɨma n. face visage (5 groups, 8 languages) B
This root is not widely attested. Where it does occur, the labialisation of *kʷ has often been sporadically lost.

1Proto-Bata *kʷɨnwɨ face visage 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) kúnwá -ə face ? (upper dialect)

2Proto-Sukur *kɨma face visage 2.1) Sukur (David) kəma face

3Proto-Margi *kʷɨma face visage 3.1) Bura (Blench) kuma Face

4Proto-Lamang *kɨma face visage 4.1) Lamang (Wolff) kə́má face, front 4.2) Hdi (Bramlett) kəma face la figure

5Proto-Higi *kɨma face visage 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kəma face 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kəma face 5.3) Psikye (Angelo) kəma face
kʷɨnɨj n. urine urine (13 groups, 31 languages) B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The *kʷ is retained in most groups, but has the reflex *k in Proto-Hurza, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Gidar, a sporadic change. There is a regular *n→r change word-medially in Proto-Mandara, and a sporadic *n͏→r change in some of the Kotoko groups. This change also appears in the Mafa and Sukur data, where it is irregular. There is a subsequent unestablished *r→ɗ change, which gives the forms for Proto-Hurza, several Mofu group languages and Mazera. The distribution of the changes suggests that a certain degree of borrowing took place between languages. The *j has been vocalised in several languages, and in Gidar it is reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, both of which are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Mafa *kʷɨraj urine urine 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) kuraj urine

2Proto-Sukur *kʷɨr ʸ urine urine 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) miskuir urine

3Proto-Hurza *mɨkaɗaj urine urine 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) məkaɗaj urine urine 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kə̄māɗáj, kumaɗaj (Afem) tribe ; descendant urine; tribu ; descendant

4Proto-Margi *kʷɨni urine urine 4.1) Bura (Blench) kini Urine 4.2) Kilba (Schuh) kunji urine

5Proto-Mandara *kʷɨrɨj urine urine 5.1) Matal (Branger) kᶷlāj urine urine 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kure,-i urine 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) kúré urine (f) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) kure urine 5.5) Glavda (Owens) kur urine 5.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kùrìja urine

6Proto-Mofu *kʷɨnaj urine urine 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kūnāj urine 6.2) Muyang (Smith) kʉɗiŋ urine urine 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) kʷne urine 6.4) Moloko (Friesen) kʷənen urine urine 6.5) Zulgo (Haller) kʷìɗé urine f. 6.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) kuɗe urine urine 6.7) Merey (Gravina) kuɗe urine urine 6.7.1) Merey (Gravina) kuɗej urine 6.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) kuneŋ urine urine 6.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) kùràj urine 6.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kuráj urine

7Proto-Maroua *kʷɨnaj urine urine 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kʷanaj urine 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kunaj urine urine 7.3) Mbazla (SILSurvey) kúnaíʼ urine urine 7.3.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) kunaj urine

8Proto-Lamang *kʷani urine urine 8.1) Hdi (Bramlett) kʷani urine l'urine

9Proto-Kotoko Island *kʷaraj urine urine 9.1) Buduma (McKone) koraj urine.

10Proto-Kotoko North *kʷɨre urine urine 10.1) Mpade (Allison) kúrè urine urine

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *kʷɨne urine urine 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) nkune urine urine 11.2) Mser (Allison) kure urine urine

12Proto-Kotoko South *kɨmaɗe urine urine 12.1) Mazera (Allison) kɨmaɗe urine urine

13Proto-Gidar *kɨna ʸ urine urine 13.1) Gidar (Hungerford) kine urine 13.2) Gidar (Schuh) kine/e urine
kʷɨsap n. grass grass (6 groups, 12 languages) A syn: kʷɨzɨn ʸ.
This root probably had a different meaning from *kʷɨzɨn ʸ. The original sense may have referred to grassland as an area, rather than to the grass itself, or possibly to hay. The *kʷ has lost the labialisation component in Matal (a sporadic process), and is lost in Mbuko and Proto-Higi, which is an irregular process. *p was realised as [f] in Proto-Central Chadic in word-final position, and this appears in all the data.

1Proto-Daba *ᵑkʷɨsaf grass herbe 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋkusɑf grass herbe 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkəsɑf grass herbe 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ŋɡusof grass herbe

2Proto-Mafa *kʷɨsaf grass herbe 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kusaf blade (of grass) brin (d'herbe)

3Proto-Hurza *saf bush brousse 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) saf bush brousse

4Proto-Mandara *kɨsaf grass herbe 4.1) Matal (Branger) ksaf, kəsaf grass herbe

5Proto-Mofu *kʷɨsaf grass herbe 5.1) Gemzek kəsaf bush country, rural area brousse, campagne 5.2) Merey kəsaf forest brousse, forêt 5.3) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf brousse 5.3.1) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf broussaille 5.3.2) MofuNorth (Barreteau) kúsáf brousse 5.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kusaf brousse, herbes

6Proto-Higi *sɨfɨ grass herbe 6.1) Bana (Lienhard) sə́fə̀ herbes seches, jaune 6.2) Kirya (Blench) ʃafa bush
kʷɨsɨm n. mouse souris (5 groups, 12 languages) B syn: katakam, kʷɨhɨm.
This root is cognate with *kʷɨhɨm, though it may come from a separate source. There is no known regular change that would account for *h to *s or vice versa. The root with *h is also found in East Chadic and this root with *s is also found in West Chadic. It is strange that this root is found in the more easterly Central Chadic languages.

1Proto-Mofu *gʷamso mouse souris 1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) gʷàmsò souris ; rat roussard 1.2) Moloko (Friesen) gəmso field mouse, grey souris de brousse; gris

2Proto-Kotoko North *kʷɨsɨm mouse souris 2.1) Mpade (Allison) kusumu mouse souris 2.2) Malgbe (Allison) gbim mouse souris 2.3) Maltam (Allison) ɓɨsɨm mouse souris

3Proto-Kotoko Centre *kʷɨsɨm mouse souris 3.1) Lagwan (Allison) xsumi mouse souris 3.2) Mser (Allison) kusum mouse souris

4Proto-Kotoko South *kʷɨsɨm mouse souris 4.1) Zina (Odden) àksùm mouse souris 4.2) Mazera (Allison) kusɨme mouse souris

5Proto-Musgum *kɨsɨm ʷ mouse souris 5.1) Vulum (Tourneux) kusum souris 5.2) Mbara (Tourneux) kusum mouse souris 5.3) Muskum (Tourneux) guzum souris

6Hausa kúusù /// kuusùu, kuusanjàa mouse souris
kʷɨtɨr ʸ n. tail queue (11 groups, 26 languages) B
This root is well attested across the Central Chadic languages. The initial *kʷ has a wider range of reflexes than with other roots. These reflexes include *hʷ, *w, *gʷ, *g and *f, and are all unestablished. In Gidar the labialisation component has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process. The *t has the unestablished reflexes /d/ and /ⁿd/ in some languages. In Glavda, *t is palatalised by the palatalisation prosody, and *tʲ→kʲ due to the regular process of velarisation of palatalised alveolars. *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba, with a few irregular exceptions.

1Proto-Bata *hʷɨtɨrɨ tail queue 1.1) Sharwa (Gravina) hutɨrə queue

2Proto-Daba *kʷɨtɨl ʸ tail queue 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) kutel tail queue 2.2) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) kʷetir queue

3Proto-Mafa *hʷɨtar tail queue 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) fútór queue 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) hʷadar tail queue

4Proto-Sukur *tur tail queue 4.1) Sukur (David) tur tail 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) tur tail:- a long thin park at the back of animals normally they used it to protect them from fly.

5Proto-Hurza *kʷɨtar ʸ tail queue 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) guter tail queue 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kuter tail queue 5.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) kʷītér tail queue

6Proto-Mandara *kʷɨtɨlɨ ʸ tail queue 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) fətəla,-ə queue 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) uktere la queue (f) 6.2.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) ugdere queue (f) 6.2.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) katalíá queue (f) 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) gatalija tail 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) xùkʲla tail 6.4.1) Glavda (Owens) xʷçə tail 6.5) Dghwede (Frick) xʷtəle tail

7Proto-Mofu *hʷɨtɨl ʸ tail queue 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) àftə̀l tail queue 7.2) Muyang (Smith) hutul tail queue 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) hʷəter tail queue 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) gutel tail queue 7.5) Merey (Gravina) hutel tail queue 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətel tail queue 7.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) deŋgʷél queue (Mokong) 7.7.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) gʷeⁿdél queue (Gudur)

8Proto-Lamang *hʷɨtir tail queue 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) hʷtir tail 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) hutur tail la queue

9Proto-Higi *twɨlɨ tail queue 9.1) Kirya (Blench) twə́lə́ tail

10Proto-Gidar *kɨtɨrɨ ʷ tail queue 10.1) Gidar (Schuh) kutəro/0 queue 10.2) Gidar (Hungerford) kutur, kuturo queue

11Proto-Musgum *gɨɗar ʸ, hɨntɨl ʷ tail queue 11.1) Vulum (Tourneux) giɗer queue 11.1.1) Mbara (Tourneux) huntul tail queue
kʷɨzɨn ʸ nm. grass herbe (10 groups, 30 languages) B syn: kʷɨsap.
This is a well attested Central Chadic root. The initial *kʷ has the reflexes *k, *w, *gʷ and *g, of which only the change in Proto-Higi is known to be regular. *z has the regular reflex *s in Proto-Margi, and the unestablished reflex *dz in Mbuko. The final *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group is a regular change. In Mbuko and Dugwor the *r has then changed to /ɗ/, an unestablished process.

1Proto-Bata *kʷɨzinɨ grass herbe 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) kùzə̀ná -ə grass (general term) 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) kʷəzənən Nom général d'herbe 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) huzənə herbe 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) huzene l'herbe

2Proto-Mafa *kɨzan ʸ grass herbe 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kəzeŋ grass herbe

3Proto-Tera *wɨzɨn grass herbe 3.1) Tera (Newman) wuzən grass 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) wuzu̱n grass

4Proto-Hurza *gʷɨdzaɗ ʸ grass herbe 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) gudʒeɗ grass herbe

5Proto-Margi *kʷɨsar grass herbe 5.1) Bura (Blench) kusar Grass 5.2) Margi (Hoffman) psar grass 5.3) Margi South (Hoffman) sar grass 5.4) Kilba (Hoffman) sar grass 5.4.1) Kilba (Schuh) sar grass 5.4.2) Kilba (Schuh) sar waist

6Proto-Mandara *kʷɨzɨrɨ ʸ grass herbe 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) kuzə́ra,-ə herbe 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kúʒaré herbe sauvage aux grains très minuscules que l'on mangeait en période de disette

7Proto-Mofu *kʷɨzɨr ʸ grass herbe 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kùzàr grass herbe 7.2) Muyang (Smith) kʉzir grass herbe 7.2.1) Muyang (Smith) kʉzir fodder, leaves or grass foin, feuilles ou herbe 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) agʷədʒer grass, straw herbe; paille 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) kʷìzir herbe f. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kozer grass herbe 7.6) Merey (Gravina) guzer thatch (n) herbe, paille, chaume 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) gudʒeɗ grass herbe 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) gùzèr herbe 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́guzer herbe (nom gén.) 7.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́guzer sekko

8Proto-Maroua *gɨzɨŋ ʸ grass herbe 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) giziŋ herbe en général 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) giziŋ grass herbe 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) giʒiŋ herbe

9Proto-Lamang *kʷɨzɨŋ grass herbe 9.1) Hdi (Bramlett) kuzuŋ herb l'herbe

10Proto-Higi *gʷɨzɨn grass herbe 10.1) Kirya (Blench) swə̀n grass 10.2) Psikye (Angelo) gʷəzə grass 10.2.1) Psikye (Angelo) gʷəzú grass 10.2.2) Psikye (Angelo) guzú grass 10.3) Bana (Lienhard) gʷ(ə̀)zə̀n herbe, paille, litière