k


kaligimo n. camel chameau (3 groups, 6 languages) A syn: ɮɨgʷamɨ ʸ, ᵑgʲaluba.
This root is a borrowing from the old Kanuri /kaligimo/, and is found in three of the Kotoko groups. There were no back vowels in these groups at an earlier point in their history, and this has led to the displacement of the back vowel next to velar consonants in Lagwan, Mser and Mazera. The back vowel was reanalysed as labialisation of the velar consonants, which then condition a following *ɨ to be realised as [u].

1Proto-Kotoko North *kɨlgimu camel chameau 1.1) Afade (Allison) gɨrgimu camel chameau 1.2) Mpade (Allison) gàldʒìmò camel chameau 1.3) Maltam (Allison) gɨrdʒimu camel chameau

2Proto-Kotoko Centre *kʷɨrgʷɨma camel chameau 2.1) Lagwan (Allison) kurguma camel chameau 2.2) Mser (Allison) gurguma camel chameau

3Proto-Kotoko South *kʷɨrgʷɨma camel chameau 3.1) Mazera (Allison) kurguma camel chameau

4Kanuri kalímo; kalímo ngʷáana / kàlìímò // kàlìgímò camel chameau
kasi num. two deux (3 groups, 5 languages) B syn: ɓɨwak, tsɨjɨw, sɨwra.
This root is found in the Kotoko Island, North and Centre groups, but not Kotoko South. The change *s→x in Buduma is regular. The *k has reflexes *k, *g and *x, which are unestablished changes.

1Proto-Kotoko Island *kihi two deux 1.1) Buduma (McKone) kixi two (2) deux (2) 1.2) Buduma (McKone) kixi deux.

2Proto-Kotoko North *gasi two deux 2.1) Afade (Allison) gasi two (2) deux (2) 2.2) Mpade (Allison) gàsì two (2) deux (2)

3Proto-Kotoko Centre *xɨsa two deux 3.1) Lagwan (Allison) xsɨɗa two (2) deux (2) 3.2) Mser (Allison) kitʃo two (2) deux (2)
katakam n. mouse mouse (3 groups, 4 languages) B syn: kʷɨhɨm, kʷɨsɨm.
This root is found in a few languages in the south-eastern part of the Central Chadic area. The labialisation prosody in Proto-Maroua is a common sporadic innovation in that language.

1Proto-Daba *katakam mouse souris 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) kàtàkàm la souris de la maison

2Proto-Maroua *katakam ʷ mouse souris 2.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kotokom souris 2.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kotokom plante 2.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kotokom rat rat 2.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kotokom mouse souris

3Proto-Gidar *katkam mouse souris 3.1) Gidar (Schuh) katkam rat 3.2) Gidar (Hungerford) katkam souris, rat
kɨdɨm nm. crocodile crocodile (11 groups, 33 languages) C syn: rigɨ.
This well-attested root is surprisingly difficult to reconstruct. It is probably borrowed from Nilo-Saharan at an early stage of the history of Central Chadic, but does not come directly from the Kanuri 'karam'. The initial *k has the unestablished reflexes *g in Mbuko and some of the Mofu group languages, and *h in Proto-Musgum. *d is reconstructed as the second consonant. There was a change of word-medial *d→r in the North sub-branch, though the *d is not retained in Proto-Bata or Proto-Sukur. The presence of *d coincides with the presence of *g. The original root may have been *gɨdɨm, and developed into *kɨrɨm in the North sub-branch, and then the two competing roots spread between languages at a later stage. Alternatively, two different cognates may have been borrowed into Central Chadic from different directions. In Proto-Mandara, the final *m has become *w as part of a regular change.

1Proto-Bata *kɨrɨm crocodile crocodile 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) kə́rə́má -ə crocodile 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) kərəmən Crocodile

2Proto-Mafa *kɨrdam, gɨdam crocodile crocodile 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) kərdam crocodile 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) gədam crocodile crocodile

3Proto-Sukur *kɨlɨm crocodile crocodile 3.1) Sukur (David) kəlum crocodile 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) kələm crocodile; a large reptile with a long tail, hard skin, big jaws and lives in rivers.

4Proto-Hurza *gɨdam crocodile crocodile 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) gədam crocodile crocodile

5Proto-Margi *hɨm, karam crocodile crocodile 5.1) Margi (Hoffman) həm crocodile 5.2) Margi South (Harley) həm crocodile 5.3) Kilba (Schuh) karam crocodile

6Proto-Mandara *kɨrwɨ ʸ crocodile crocodile 6.1) Matal (Branger) kʷədəw, kudu crocodile crocodile 6.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kjérrúe caïman (m), crocodile, alligator 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) kirwe crocodile 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kírwa crocodile 6.4.1) Glavda (Owens) kír crocodile

7Proto-Mofu *kɨrɨm, gɨdam crocodile crocodile 7.1) Muyang (Smith) kurᵐbu Nile crocodile crocodile 7.2) Mada (Nkoumou) akrám crocodile 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) kəraᵐba crocodile cayman crocodile 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) kə̀rəm crocodile m. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kəram crocodile crocodile 7.6) Merey (Gravina) gədam crocodile crocodile 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) gədam crocodile crocodile 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) gə̀dàm crocodile 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) gədem crocodile

8Proto-Maroua *hɨrɨm ʷ crocodile crocodile 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hurum caiþman,crocodile 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) hurom crocodile crocodile 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) hurum crocodile

9Proto-Lamang *kɨram crocodile crocodile 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) kəram crocodile 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) kəram crocodile le crocodile

10Proto-Higi *kɨlɨm crocodile crocodile 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kə́lmí crocodile 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kələməᵑg crocodile 10.3) Kirya (Blench) hə̀lə́mə́ crocodile 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) kə́lə́ᵐbə́ crocodile, claman

11Proto-Musgum *hɨrɨm ʷ crocodile crocodile 11.1) Vulum (Tourneux) horum crocodile 11.2) Mbara (Tourneux) hurum crocodile crocodile

12Kanuri kárám crocodile crocodile
kɨja nm. moon lune (7 groups, 23 languages) A syn: tira.
The basic sense of this root is 'moon', but it has the extended sense 'month' i.e. a period of time, in almost all languages. This is one of two roots for 'moon', with *tira being used widely across Chadic languages. The *k is realised as *h in Proto-Margi, an unestablished change, and also in Zina where this is a regular change. In some Mofu group languages the *j has triggered the creation of the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Mafa *kɨja moon lune 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kija lune 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) kija moon lune 1.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kija month mois

2Proto-Hurza *kɨja moon lune 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kija moon; month lune; mois 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kíjāhkē moon lune ; mois

3Proto-Margi *hja moon lune 3.1) Margi (Hoffman) hja moon, month 3.2) Margi South (Harley) hja moon 3.3) Kilba (Schuh) hja moon, month

4Proto-Mofu *kɨja moon lune 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷìjò moon lune 4.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kʷìjò month mois 4.2) Muyang (Smith) kiji moon ; month lune; mois 4.3) Mada (Nkoumou) màwɮàr já kja clarté de la lune 4.4) Moloko (Friesen) kəja moon lune 4.4.1) Moloko (Friesen) kəja month mois 4.5) Zulgo (Haller) kije lune f. 4.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) kije mois m. 4.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) kije month mois 4.6.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) kije moon lune 4.7) Merey (Gravina) kije month mois; lune 4.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) kija moon; month lune; mois 4.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) kija lune, mois 4.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kijá lune 4.10.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kijá mois (lunaire) 4.10.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kijá saison

5Proto-Maroua *kɨja moon lune 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kija lune, mois 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kija début saison des pluies (IV-I) 5.1.2) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kija 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kija moon lune 5.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kija month mois 5.3) Mbazla (SILSurvey) kíjáh moon lune 5.3.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) kija lune

6Proto-Kotoko Island *kɨja moon lune 6.1) Buduma (McKone) kija mois, nouvelle lune. 6.2) Buduma (McKone) kija; kija hə bohu month mois

7Proto-Kotoko South *kɨja moon lune 7.1) Zina (Odden) hìjà moon lune 7.1.1) Zina (Odden) hìjà month mois 7.2) Mazera (Allison) kija moon lune
kɨɬɨɗ n. broom balai (5 groups, 9 languages) D syn: sɨmɨt ʸ, sɨrɨkʷ.
This root is found in a mixed group of languages. This, and the variation in the reflexes, make it uncertain that these are all cognate. The word is undoubtedly an innovation that was not in use in Proto-Central Chadic.

1Proto-Daba *ᵑkɨɬɨɗ broom balai 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɬɑɗ broom balai 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkəɬəɗ broom balai 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ŋɡəɬəɗ broom balai

2Proto-Margi *ɬatɨ broom balai 2.1) Kilba (Schuh) ɬata/ə broom

3Proto-Mandara *maɬaɗ broom balai 3.1) Matal (Branger) maɬaɗ broom balai

4Proto-Kotoko North *wɨɬɨɗ broom balai 4.1) Afade (Allison) wɨtso broom balai 4.2) Mpade (Allison) wósʼó broom balai 4.3) Malgbe (Allison) waɬɨ broom balai

5Proto-Musgum *lɨha broom balai 5.1) Muskum (Tourneux) lɨha balai
kɨr v., n. steal voler (16 groups, 49 languages) B
This is one of the best attested roots in Central Chadic. Some of the entries are for the verb 'to steal', and some are for the nouns 'theft' and 'thief'. It is not clear which form is the basic root. The *k has the reflexes *h, *hʷ, *ɣ and *ɣʷ, which are unestablished reflexes. No labialisation is reconstructed since the support comes only from an unusual reflex in Lagwan, and from the Giziga languages where sporadic labialisation is common. It is not clear whether the proto-form had *h or *k, but *k is preferred as *k→h is more common than the opposite change in Central Chadic. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. The *r in Proto-Kotoko North is an exception. In a few languages *r has the reflex /ɗ/, which is an unestablished change. There is some evidence for reconstructing *i, but the mix of noun and verb forms makes it difficult to reconstruct the vowels with confidence. For this reason the root is given the confidence level B rather than A.

1Proto-Bata *hɨr steal voler 1.1) Bata (Boyd) hɨ́r steal 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) harə steal. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) hərən Voler, dérober ; 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) har Voler, dérober 1.4.1) Sharwa (Gravina) maharə, maharəʼəkə Voleur,euse 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) ahəlle le voleur

2Proto-Daba *hɨl steal voler 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋhel steal voler (dérober) 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋhel thief voleur 2.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋhel theft vol 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋhəl steal voler (dérober) 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋhəl thief voleur 2.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋhəl theft 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mihil theft vol 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mihəl thief voleur 2.3.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) hil steal voler (dérober) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) hə̄l faire ; lutter ; voler 2.5) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) həl vol

3Proto-Mafa *kɨr steal voler 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kəraw theft il faut voler 3.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) kərej steal voler (dérober)

4Proto-Sukur *kɨr steal voler 4.1) Sukur (David) kər steal, to 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) kər steal; to take something from a person permission or without intending to return it or pay for it.

5Proto-Hurza *kɨra steal voler 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) akar theft vol 5.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kəra to steal st voler 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ākár vol

6Proto-Margi *hila steal voler 6.1) Bura (Blench) hila Theft 6.1.1) Bura (Blench) hila To steal 6.2) Margi South (Harley) həl to steal 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) həla theft

7Proto-Mandara *ɣɨl steal voler 7.1) Matal (Branger) màd ɡə̀l steal voler 7.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ílá voler 7.2.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) ílá vol (m) 7.3) Malgwa (Löhr) naŋəle thief 7.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) ŋəla steal 7.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) gla thief 7.4.1) Glavda (Owens) g thief 7.4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʁɨ́lᵊga steal 7.5) Dghwede (Frick) gəle thief

8Proto-Mofu *kɨl steal voler 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) àkàl vol 8.2) Mada (Nkoumou) akkal vol 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) akar robbery le vol 8.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) akar thief voleur 8.3.2) Moloko (Friesen) akar thief voleur 8.3.3) Moloko (Friesen) karaj steal voler; dérober 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) akə́l vol m. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) akəl theft vol 8.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mekəle steal voler (dérober) 8.6) Merey (Gravina) kəla steal voler (dérober) 8.6.1) Merey (Gravina) məkal theft vol, voleur 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) nəkal thief voleur 8.7.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) nəkal theft vol 8.7.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) mənəkəlej steal voler (dérober) 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) méhùlèj voler 8.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) méhùlèj dérober 8.8.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) máhàl voleur 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) lál voler, dérober, détourner 8.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) malaj voleur

9Proto-Maroua *hʷɨl steal voler 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hul voler 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hul mentir, faire son coup en douce, travailler par en dessous, fausseté, parler derrière pas franchement, calomnier 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) hul theft vol 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) laj voler (dérober) 9.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) àlāíʼ steal voler (dérober)

10Proto-Lamang *ɣila steal voler 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɣila steal 10.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) ɣìlì theft 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ɣali thief le voleur

11Proto-Higi *ɣɨli steal voler 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɣəli to steal 11.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɣə̀lì steal 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɣirə thief 11.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɣire steal 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ɣə̀lə̀ steal 11.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɣ(ə̀)lí voler, piler

12Proto-Kotoko North *hir steal voler 12.1) Afade (Allison) hiʔi thief voleur 12.2) Mpade (Allison) háɗi thief voleur 12.3) Malgbe (Allison) hiru thief voleur

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *ɣʷɨj steal voler 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) musxui thief voleur 13.2) Mser (Allison) nɣej thief voleur

14Proto-Kotoko South *hɨla steal voler 14.1) Zina (Odden) àhə̀l thief voleur 14.2) Mazera (Allison) jale thief voleur

15Proto-Musgum *hɨl steal voler 15.1) Vulum (Tourneux) mihil vol

16Proto-Gidar *ɨhala steal voler 16.1) Gidar (Schuh) əhala voler (de voleur) 16.2) Gidar (Hungerford) ɨɨhala dérober, voler 16.3) Gidar (Hungerford) ɨ hala vol, derober
kɨrakaɬ ʸ n. bone os (4 groups, 10 languages) C syn: ɗiɬ.
This root is found primarily in three groups that are currently unconnected (the Moloko word is borrowed from neighbouring Mbuko). However at some time in the past these groups may have been adjacent. The exact form of the original root is difficult to determine.

1Proto-Daba *kɨrɨᵑgɨɬ ʸ bone os 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) kerəᵑgeɬ bone os 1.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kirŋɡiɬ bone os 1.3) Daba (Lienhard) gèᵑgíríɮ l'os

2Proto-Hurza *kɨlakaɬ bone os 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kəlakaɬ bone os, bec 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āɬə̄ɬāk bone os

3Proto-Mofu *kɨlakaɬ bone os 3.1) Moloko (Friesen) kəlakaɬ bone os

4Proto-Musgum *kaɬka ʸ bone os 4.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) keɬke os 4.2) Vulum (Tourneux) keɬke os 4.3) Mbara (Tourneux) ᵑgiɬ bone os 4.4) Muskum (Tourneux) kɨɬɨt os
kɨri nm. dog chien (13 groups, 35 languages) C
This root may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri or from Nilo-Saharan. The root presents some unusual difficulties. *r has the reflex *d in some languages, and *l in others. If this root were a Proto-Central Chadic root, then we would expect *r→l in the North sub-branch, but this is the case only in a few groups, some of which have a separate, later *r→l change. A Proto-Central Chadic root with *d in medial position should give *r in the North sub-branch. There is a reasonable degree of consistency in this, but there are many exceptions. The best explanation for the forms is that the word entered Central Chadic at the time of the group proto-languages. The final vowel is reconstructed as *i, as in Kanuri, and this is reflected in Proto-Margi, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. In the Higi group the *i has been reanalysed as palatalisation of *l.

1Proto-Mafa *kɨda dog chien 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) kəda dog chien 1.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kəda chien 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) gəda dog chien

2Proto-Sukur *kɨra dog chien 2.1) Sukur (David) kəra dog 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) kəra dog

3Proto-Hurza *kɨla dog chien 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kəla dog chien 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kə̄lá dog chien

4Proto-Margi *kila dog chien 4.1) Bura (Blench) kila Dog

5Proto-Mandara *kɨda dog chien 5.1) Matal (Branger) kəda dog chien 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kədá,-a chien 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) kéré chien (m) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) kəre dog 5.5) Dghwede (Frick) gde dog

6Proto-Mofu *kɨra dog chien 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kə̀rà dog chien 6.2) Muyang (Smith) kərɑ dog chien 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) kəra dog chien 6.4) Zulgo (Haller) kəra chien m. 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kəra dog chien 6.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) kəra dog chien 6.7) Proto-Mofu Subgroup *gɨdaj ʸ dog chien 6.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) gə̄dēj chien 6.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) gədéj chien

7Proto-Maroua *kɨrɨ ʸ dog chien 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kiri (Mt) k(i) ri (ɗu) chien (kiri nañ (Mj) kri nañ (Mt) son chien 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kre dog chien 7.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) kire chien 7.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) krɛ́ʼ dog chien

8Proto-Lamang *kɨri dog chien 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) kə́ré dog 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) kəri dog le chien

9Proto-Higi *kɨli dog chien 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kəljə̊ dog 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kəlje dog 9.3) Kirya (Blench) kə́ɽí dog 9.4) Bana (Lienhard) k(ə́)rí chien

10Proto-Kotoko Island *kɨli dog chien 10.1) Buduma (McKone) kəliə dog chien 10.2) Buduma (McKone) kəli chien.

11Proto-Kotoko North *kɨlew dog chien 11.1) Afade (Allison) gɨlew dog chien 11.2) Mpade (Allison) kɨ́lèw dog chien 11.3) Malgbe (Allison) gɨlew dog chien

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *kɨle dog chien 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) kle; kɨle dog chien 12.2) Mser (Allison) kle dog chien

13Proto-Gidar *kɨra dog chien 13.1) Gidar (Schuh) kəra chien 13.2) Gidar (Hungerford) kra chien

14Kanuri kə́ri dog chien
kɨrɨp ʸ nf. fish poisson (15 groups, 46 languages) A
This is one of the best attested Central Chadic roots. The initial *k has the regular reflex *j in the Tera group, and the unestablished reflex /h/ in Vulum. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok in the Mafa group, though the /l/ in Mafa itself is irregular. *p was realised as [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic, and /f/ was then phonemicised, but in this word it has the reflex *p in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi. These are unestablished changes. The palatalisation prosody is retained in all groups where the palatalisation prosody exists.

1Proto-Bata *kɨrɨfɨ ʸ fish poisson 1.1) Bata (Boyd) qərfjée fish 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) hə̀rə̀fìnə fish. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) hərjəfən Poisson 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) kurjəfi poisson 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) wulfin les poissons

2Proto-Daba *kɨlɨf ʸ fish poisson 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋkəlef fish poisson 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkilif fish poisson 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəlːif fish poisson 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) kìlíf le poisson 2.5) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) kilif poisson

3Proto-Mafa *kɨlaf ʸ fish poisson 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kíléf nom gén. pour les gros poissons 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) kəlef fish poisson

4Proto-Tera *jɨrvɨ ʷ fish poisson 4.1) Tera (Newman) jurvu fish 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) jurvu fish

5Proto-Sukur *kɨrɨf ʸ fish poisson 5.1) Sukur (David) kirif fish 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) kirif fish; is the general term for fishes.

6Proto-Hurza *kɨlaf ʸ fish poisson 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kəlef fish poisson

7Proto-Margi *kɨlfi ʸ fish poisson 7.1) Bura (Blench) kilfa General name for fish 7.2) Margi (Hoffman) kjifi fish 7.3) Margi South (Harley) kalfi fish 7.4) Kilba (Schuh) kalfi fish

8Proto-Mandara *kɨlɨfɨ ʸ fish poisson 8.1) Matal (Branger) kilfi, kilfəj fish poisson 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) kɨləfe,-ə poisson 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) kelfe poisson (m) 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) kəlfe fish gen. 8.5) Glavda (Owens) kil fish 8.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kìilfa fish 8.6) Dghwede (Frick) klfe fish

9Proto-Mofu *kɨlɨf ʸ fish poisson 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kə̄līf poisson 9.2) Moloko (Friesen) kəlef fish poisson en général 9.3) Zulgo (Haller) kílíf poisson m. 9.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) kəlef fish poisson 9.5) Merey (Gravina) kəlef fish poisson 9.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) kəlef fish poisson 9.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) kə́léf poisson (nom g;-en.)

10Proto-Maroua *kɨlɨf ʸ fish poisson 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kilif poisson ( ne général) 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kilef fish poisson 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) kilif poisson 10.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) kiliv fish poisson

11Proto-Lamang *kɨlɨpi fish poisson 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) kəlpi fish 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) kəlipi fish le poisson

12Proto-Higi *kɨlipɨ fish poisson 12.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kələpə fish 12.2) Kirya (Blench) kə̀rèpə́ fish (general) 12.2.1) Kirya (Blench) kə̀ɽìpə́ fish 12.3) Psikye (Angelo) kələpə́ fish 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) k(ə)lìpə̀ poisson 12.4.1) Bana (Lienhard) kə̀rpì poissons (pl)

13Proto-Kotoko South *kɨlfɨ fish poisson 13.1) Zina (Odden) hə̀lfə̀ fish poisson 13.2) Mazera (Allison) kɨlfa fish poisson

14Proto-Musgum *hɨlɨf ʸ fish poisson 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) hilif poisson (générique)

15Proto-Gidar *kɨlfɨ ʸ fish poisson 15.1) Gidar (Hungerford) kilfi poisson
kɨrɨw num. ten dix (5 groups, 18 languages) C syn: hɨkan, kʷɨm.
This is one of three widely-attested roots for 'ten'. It is found in the area around the Mandara Mountains. The *r is expected to be realised as *l in the North sub-branch, but this is only the case for the Mandara group, and not for the Maroua and Mofu groups. In the Mafa group, /l/ is found in Mafa where /r/ is expected and /r/ is found in Cuvok where /l/ is expected. This indicates that the root may not be very old, and that it spread by borrowing rather than being inherited. The *w is variously interpreted as labialisation of *k or as the labialisation prosody.

1Proto-Mafa *kʷɨraw ten dix 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) kula dix 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) kuraw ten (10) dix (10)

2Proto-Hurza *kɨra ʷ ten dix 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) kuro ten dix

3Proto-Mandara *kɨlawa ten dix 3.1) Matal (Branger) kᵘ̄l(u) ten dix 3.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) kelawa dix 3.3) Glavda (Owens) kəl ten 3.3.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) klàːwa ten (10)

4Proto-Mofu *kɨraw ten dix 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) kūlū ten dix 4.2) Muyang (Smith) kru ten dix 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) kəro ten dix 4.4) Zulgo (Haller) kúrwá dix 4.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) kuro ten (10) dix (10) 4.6) Merey (Gravina) kuro ten (10) dix (10) 4.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) kurow ten (10) dix (10) 4.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) kúráw dix 4.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) kúráw dix 4.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) kúráw dix

5Proto-Maroua *kɨrɨ ʷ ten dix 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kuruʼu dix 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) kuru ten (10) dix (10) 5.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) kuru dix 5.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ̄kúrúʼ ten dix
kɨwah num. six six (9 groups, 29 languages) A syn: vɨnahkɨr, markɨɗ ʸ, ɬira.
This is one of four well-attested roots for 'six'. It has the widest distribution, and is the most likely candidate for the Proto-Cental Chadic root. The *w has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k in several groups. The final *h has been lost in most groups. These are common sporadic processes. In common with some other numerals, a nasal has been prefixed to the root in most cases.

1Proto-Bata *kɨwa six six 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) kùwá six six 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ənko Six

2Proto-Daba *kʷah six six 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋkʷɑh six (6) six (6) 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋkʷɑh six (6) six (6) 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ŋ̩kuh six (6) six (6) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) kōh six

3Proto-Mafa *makʷa six six 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) mokʷa six 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) makʷa six (6) six (6)

4Proto-Sukur *mɨkʷa six six 4.1) Sukur (David) mukʷa six 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) məkʷa six

5Proto-Margi *kʷa six six 5.1) Bura (Blench) nkʷa Six six 5.2) Margi South (Harley) kʷa six

6Proto-Mandara *mɨkɨwah six six 6.1) Matal (Branger) mᵘ̄kʷá six six 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) məkuwá,-ə six 6.3) Malgwa (Löhr) unkʷe six 6.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùŋkʷàxa six (6)

7Proto-Mofu *mɨkʷaw six six 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mūkú six six 7.2) Muyang (Smith) muku six six 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) məko six six 7.4) Merey (Gravina) məkʷa six (6) six (6) 7.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) mukow six (6) six (6) 7.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) múkʷa six 7.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maakʷáw six ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux 7.7.1) MofuGudur (Hollingsworth) maakʷáw six ; chiffre signalant un nombre impair dans la divination par les cailloux

8Proto-Lamang *mkɨwa six six 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) mkʷá six 8.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) m̀kúwá six 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) məʼku six six

9Proto-Higi *kʷaŋ six six 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) nkʷáᵑgə́ Six 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) nkʷaᵑgo six 9.3) Kirya (Blench) kʷáᵑg six 9.4) Psikye (Angelo) ŋkʷáŋə́ six 9.5) Bana (Lienhard) kʷáŋ six (6)
koro n. donkey âne (9 groups, 20 languages) B syn: ziᵑgʷa, ᵐburi.
This is a widespread African root that may have come into Central Chadic from Kanuri. Many Central Chadic languages do not have back vowels, and the *o has been reinterpreted as labialisation of *k, the labialisation prosody or as the sequence /aw/. The *r has not changed in any languages, which indicates a very short time depth for the introduction of this root into Central Chadic.

1Proto-Bata *kʷara donkey âne 1.1) Bata (Boyd) kʷáárééto donkey 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) kʷárá donkey 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) kʷara Ane 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) kʷara Ane

2Proto-Tera *koro donkey âne 2.1) Tera (Newman) koro donkey 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) kooro donkey

3Proto-Margi *kʷara donkey âne 3.1) Bura (Blench) kʷara Ass 3.1.1) Bura (Blench) kʷara Donkey 3.2) Margi South (Harley) kʷara donkey 3.3) Kilba (Schuh) kʷara/a donkey

4Proto-Maroua *kawra donkey âne 4.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) kawra; awra âne à museau blanc

5Proto-Higi *kʷara donkey âne 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kʷara donkey 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) kʷara donkey 5.3) Kirya (Blench) kʷàrà donkey 5.4) Psikye (Angelo) kʷará donkey

6Proto-Kotoko Island *kuro donkey âne 6.1) Buduma (McKone) kuro âne.

7Proto-Kotoko North *koro donkey âne 7.1) Mpade (Allison) kóró donkey âne 7.2) Malgbe (Allison) gro donkey âne

8Proto-Musgum *kʷɨra ʸ donkey âne 8.1) Vulum (Tourneux) kʉre âne 8.2) Mbara (Tourneux) kuro donkey âne 8.3) Muskum (Tourneux) kʉret âne

9Proto-Gidar *kara ʷ donkey âne 9.1) Gidar (Schuh) koro âne

10Kanuri kóro / kóró donkey âne