m


mabor n. lion lion (5 groups, 9 languages) B syn: lɨvari, zɨjɨl.
This is one of three roots for 'lion'. It is unusual in that the labialisation prosody is present in two groups, and there is a back vowel in the Daba group. Neither the labialisation prosody nor back vowels are reconstructed for Proto-Central Chadic, and any back vowels in reflexes can normally be explained as originating with *w or a labialised velar. In this case, no such explanation is evident. There was no change *r→l, so the root cannot have any great time depth. The root could have been borrowed, though the source is not known, or it could be a comparatively recent coining. *ma- is a common nominalizing prefix, and the word may denote 'a thing that goes bor', for example.

1Proto-Daba *mabor lion lion 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mabor lion lion

2Proto-Mafa *mabar lion lion 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) mabar lion lion

3Proto-Hurza *bɨrbar ʷ lion lion 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) bərbor animal animal (comme le lion?)

4Proto-Mofu *mabar lion lion 4.1) Moloko (Friesen) mabor brush lion lion_de_la_brousse 4.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) mabor lion lion 4.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) mábàr lion 4.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) mabár lion

5Proto-Maroua *mabar ʷ lion lion 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mobor lion 5.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mobor surnom du chef (majesté) 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mobor lion lion
madɨwan n. rat rat (6 groups, 13 languages) A
This root is found in a wide range of languages around the Mandara Mountains. It is expected that there would be a change of word-final *n→r in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Mofu. However this has not taken place, indicating that the root may have been borrowed into these groups form another language such as Mafa.

1Proto-Daba *maⁿdɨwan rat rat 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɑⁿduwɑn rat rat 1.2) Daba (Lienhard) māⁿdə̀wàn le rat palmiste

2Proto-Mafa *madɨwan rat rat 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) madəwa rat 2.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) məduwa rat de Gambie 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) madwaŋ rat rat

3Proto-Sukur *mɨdwan rat rat 3.1) Sukur (David) mudwan rat, large 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) mədwan rat; a small animal with a long tail, that looks like large mouse usually considered as a pest.

4Proto-Hurza *mɨdɨdɨwan rat rat 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mədəduwan rat rat, raton

5Proto-Mandara *madɨwanɨ rat rat 5.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) madə́wana,-ə rat palmiste

6Proto-Mofu *madɨwan rat rat 6.1) Muyang (Smith) mɑdwɑŋ rat 6.2) Moloko (Friesen) mədəwan palm rat rat_palmiste 6.3) Zulgo (Haller) médiwiŋ rat m. 6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) maduwaŋ rat rat 6.5) Merey (Gravina) maduwaŋ rat rat 6.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maⁿdəwaŋ Rat de Gambie
mahʷa n. horn corne (3 groups, 4 languages) C syn: lagan, dɨrɨm, ᵐbɨkʷɨm.
This is one of the rarer roots for 'horn', and is found only in three groups in the Eastern Plains area. The labialisation component of the *h has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Musgum and Proto-Gidar, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Kotoko South *ahʷa horn corne 1.1) Zina (Odden) àhʷàl horn corne 1.2) Mazera (Allison) mɨhue horn corne

2Proto-Musgum *maha ʷ horn corne 2.1) Mbara (Tourneux) moho horn

3Proto-Gidar *maha ʷ horn corne 3.1) Gidar (Schuh) moho, o corne 3.2) Gidar (Hungerford) mohõ corne
maj₂ nm. mouth bouche (15 groups, 43 languages) A
This is an extremely well-attested root, and is found in all groups except for Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Kotoko Centre. There was a regular change *m→w word-inital before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group, and this form has been borrowed by Podoko and Lamang. The *j has been lost in several groups, has combined with *a to produce *e in the Tera and Kotoko South groups, and has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody in the Hurza and Maroua groups. All these are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *ma mouth bouche 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) (inher. poss. body part) mouth, edge, rim. 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) man Bouche 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ma bouche 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) ma la bouche

2Proto-Daba *ma mouth bouche 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mouth (outside) bouche (extérieur) 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) language langue, language 2.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) word parole 2.1.3) Buwal (Viljoen) problem problème 2.1.4) Buwal (Viljoen) issue question 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mouth (outside) bouche (extérieur) 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) language langue 2.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) speech discours 2.2.3) Gavar (Viljoen) issue problème 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ma mouth bouche 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) la bouche, les mots, le langage, la parole

3Proto-Mafa *ma mouth bouche 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ma bouche 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) ma mouth bouche

4Proto-Tera *me mouth bouche 4.1) Tera (Newman) me mouth 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) me mouth

5Proto-Sukur *ŋʷɨ mouth bouche 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) ŋʷu mouth

6Proto-Hurza *ma ʸ, ʔam mouth bouche 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ʼam mouth bouche 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) mé 1 language ; mouth ; word langue ; bouche ; parole 6.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) mé 2 beak bec

7Proto-Margi *mja mouth bouche 7.1) Bura (Blench) mja Mouth 7.2) Margi South (Harley) mija mouth 7.2.1) Margi South (Harley) mja mouth 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) nja/a mouth

8Proto-Mandara *wa mouth bouche 8.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) wa,-a bouche 8.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) we bouche (f) 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) we mouth 8.4) Dghwede (Frick) wuwe mouth

9Proto-Mofu *maj mouth bouche 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mouth bouche 9.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) opening ouverture 9.2) Muyang (Smith) mouth ; face ; shape bouche; visage; forme 9.2.1) Muyang (Smith) entrance ; door entrée; porte 9.2.2) Muyang (Smith) word ; matter ; language mot; parole; langue 9.2.3) Muyang (Smith) front devant 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) mámma bouche 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) ma mouth bouche 9.4.1) Moloko (Friesen) ma language langue 9.4.2) Moloko (Friesen) ma word parole 9.4.3) Moloko (Friesen) ma beak bec 9.5) Zulgo (Haller) àhəm langue f., langage m. 9.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) àhəm parole f. 9.6) Merey (Gravina) me bouche 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) mej mouth bouche 9.7.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mej word mot, parole 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj bouche,gueule, bec 9.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj bord, bout, extreminité, entrée 9.8.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj devant, début, avant 9.8.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj parole, langue, langage 9.8.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj affaire, palabre 9.8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj bouche 9.8.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) méj parole 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) méj mouth bouche, lèvre ; gueule ; bec 9.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) méj word parole, langue, langage 9.9.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) méj opening bord, bout, extrémité, entrée 9.9.3) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) méj devant, début, avant 9.9.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) méj affaires, palabre

10Proto-Maroua *ma ʸ mouth bouche 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) me mouth bouche 10.2) Mbazla (SILSurvey) meʼ mouth bouche 10.2.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) me bouche

11Proto-Lamang *waj mouth bouche 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) éwé mouth

12Proto-Higi *mi mouth bouche 12.1) Kirya (Blench) mouth 12.2) Bana (Lienhard) bouche

13Proto-Kotoko South *me mouth bouche 13.1) Zina (Odden) mouth bouche 13.2) Mazera (Allison) me mouth bouche

14Proto-Musgum *maj mouth bouche 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) meŋ bouche 14.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) meᵑg bouche 14.3) Mbara (Tourneux) maj mouth bouche 14.4) Muskum (Tourneux) mut bouche

15Proto-Gidar *ma mouth bouche 15.1) Gidar (Schuh) ma, a bouche 15.2) Gidar (Hungerford) maʼ bouche
maj₁ nm. hunger faim (13 groups, 35 languages) A
This extremely well-attested root has the same form as the root for 'mouth', and was probably originally an extended sense of the same root. The basic sense is 'hunger', and this is extended in many languages to cover a time of famine. There was a regular change *m→w word-initial before a vowel in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group.

1Proto-Bata *mi hunger faim 1.1) Sharwa (Gravina) miki faim, famine

2Proto-Mafa *maj hunger faim 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) maj famine famine, faim 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) maj (be) hungry, hunger (v) (avoir) faim

3Proto-Tera *mii hunger faim 3.1) Tera (Newman) me hunger 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) mee drought, famine 3.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) mee (be) hungry, hunger (v) 3.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) miita famine

4Proto-Sukur *maj hunger faim 4.1) Sukur (David) máj hunger 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) mai hungry; is the general term for hungry; feeling that you want to eat something. For example food.

5Proto-Hurza *maj hunger faim 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) maj hunger faim 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) hùmáj famine famine 5.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) māj hunger faim

6Proto-Margi *mi hunger faim 6.1) Bura (Blench) mi Hunger Famine To be hungry ka mi. He is hungry mi ata kita ni 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) mi hunger

7Proto-Mandara *majɨ hunger faim 7.1) Matal (Branger) maj hunger faim 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) maja,-ə faim, famine 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) waja faim (m) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) waja famine, scarcity 7.4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) waja hunger 7.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) wàja (be) hungry, hunger (v) 7.5.1) Glavda (Owens) wa hunger, famine

8Proto-Mofu *maj hunger faim 8.1) Moloko (Friesen) maj hunger faim 8.2) Zulgo (Haller) máj faim f. 8.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) maj la famine 8.4) Merey (Gravina) maj hunger faim 8.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) maj (be) hungry, hunger (v) (avoir) faim 8.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) máj faim 8.6.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) máj famine 8.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maj faim, famine

9Proto-Maroua *maj hunger faim 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) maj faim, désir 9.2) Giziga Marva maj gi dʒe (be) hungry, hunger (v) (avoir) faim 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) maj faim 9.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) omáiʼ hunger (general) faim (général)

10Proto-Lamang *maja hunger faim 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) maja hunger 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) maja hunger la faim

11Proto-Higi *ma hunger faim 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) hunger 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ma (be) hungry; hunger (v) 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ʼmá hunger 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) hunger 11.5) Bana (Lienhard) faim

12Proto-Musgum *maj hunger faim 12.1) Mbara (Tourneux) mijamaj hunger faim

13Proto-Gidar *maja hunger faim 13.1) Gidar (Hungerford) maja famine 13.2) Gidar (Hungerford) maja faim
mama nf. mother mère (14 groups, 39 languages) A syn: ja.
The root *mama or *ma is a common root for 'mother' cross-linguistically. In many Central Chadic languages there is also the variant *man. The expected change *m
→w in Mandara and Malgwa did not take place. The root *ja is found in the Kotoko languages.

1Proto-Bata *me mother mère 1.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) mekən la mère

2Proto-Daba *ma mother mère 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɑn mother mère 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mɑmɑ mother mère 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mama mother mère 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) māj ma mère

3Proto-Mafa *mama mother mère 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) mámá mère 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) mamaŋ mother maman 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ma mother mère

4Proto-Sukur *mama mother mère 4.1) Sukur (David) ma, mama mother 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) mama mother: a female parent of a child or animals. and is a person who is acting as a mother to a child.

5Proto-Hurza *mama mother mère 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) man mother mère (d'un animal) 5.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mamaj mother mère 5.1.2) Mbuko (Gravina) maj mother mère 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) māmá mother mère

6Proto-Margi *ma mother mère 6.1) Bura (Blench) muma Mother 6.1.1) Bura (Blench) maja Mother 6.2) Margi South (Harley) ama mother 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) ama mother

7Proto-Mandara *ma mother mère 7.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) mamá,-a mère 7.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) mama mère (f) 7.2.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) emma mère (f) 7.3) Malgwa (Löhr) mama mother 7.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) əmma mother 7.3.2) Malgwa (Löhr) uuma mother, female 7.3.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ma mother

8Proto-Mofu *ma mother mère 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) māŋ mother mère 8.2) Muyang (Smith) mmɑ mother (form of address) 8.3) Mada (Nkoumou) amma mère 8.4) Moloko (Friesen) mama mother mère 8.5) Zulgo (Haller) mə́mə́r mère f. 8.5.1) Zulgo (Haller) màmá (gà) mère f. 8.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) mamər mother mère 8.6.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) məmar mother mère 8.7) Merey (Gravina) maja mère 8.7.1) Merey (Gravina) maj mère 8.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) mama mother mère 8.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) màjá mère 8.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) mamaŋ mother (sa, la) mère

9Proto-Maroua *ma mother mère 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) maha maman, mère 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mumuŋ mère 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) uma mother mère 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ma mère

10Proto-Lamang *mama mother mère 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) mamaa mother 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) mama mother la mère

11Proto-Higi *ma mother mère 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ma mother 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) mama mother 11.3) Kirya (Blench) màjì (mà) mother, grandmother 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) ma mother 11.4.1) Psikye (Angelo) miji mother

12Proto-Kotoko Island *man mother mère 12.1) Buduma (McKone) man mère.

13Proto-Musgum *maa mother mère 13.1) Vulum (Tourneux) amaa ma mère 13.2) Muskum (Tourneux) maana ma mère

14Proto-Gidar *ma mother mère 14.1) Gidar (Schuh) ma mère 14.2) Gidar (Hungerford) əəma, ma mère, maman 14.3) Gidar (Schuh) mma mère
mar n. oil huile (13 groups, 33 languages) A
The basic sense is the oil used in cooking, but the root can be applied to other types of oil. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and Cuvok. There was also a regular change *m→w word-initial pre-vocalic in the Wandala and Dghwede subgroups of the Mandara group which accounts for the change in Glavda.

1Proto-Bata *marɨ oil huile 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) marən L'huile 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) marə huile, crème

2Proto-Daba *mal ʸ oil huile 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mel oil huile 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mɑli oil huile

3Proto-Mafa *mar oil huile 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ᵐbár huile 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) mal oil huile

4Proto-Tera *mar oil huile 4.1) Tera (Newman) mar oil 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) mor oil

5Proto-Sukur *mir oil huile 5.1) Sukur (David) mir oil 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) mir oil; is the general term for oil; it can be petroleum, engine oil, groundnut oil etc.

6Proto-Hurza *amar oil huile 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) amar oil (cooking) huile 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) āᵐbár oil huile

7Proto-Margi *mal oil huile 7.1) Bura (Blench) mal Fat, oil 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) mal oil = fat

8Proto-Mandara *malɨ oil huile 8.1) Matal (Branger) āmàl oil huile 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) mala,-ə huile 8.3) Glavda (Owens) wal oil, vegetable oil 8.3.1) Glavda (Owens) oil, cream 8.3.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) wàla oil

9Proto-Mofu *amal oil hule 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āmāl oil huile 9.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑmɑl oil, fuel huile ; carburant 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) amal huile 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) amar oil huile 9.5) Zulgo (Haller) mal huile f. 9.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) mal oil huile 9.7) Merey (Gravina) mal huile 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) mál huile 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) mál huile

10Proto-Maroua *mal oil huile 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mal graisse, huile, matière grasse 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mal oil huile

11Proto-Kotoko South *amɨl oil huile 11.1) Zina (Odden) àməl oil huile 11.2) Mazera amle fat graisse

12Proto-Musgum *mal oil huile 12.1) Vulum (Tourneux) amel huile, buerre 12.2) Mbara (Tourneux) mal oil huile 12.3) Muskum (Tourneux) mɨltuw huile, beurre

13Proto-Gidar *malɨ ʸ oil huile 13.1) Gidar (Schuh) mele/0 huile 13.2) Gidar (Hungerford) mele huile
markɨɗ ʸ num. six six (2 groups, 5 languages) syn: kɨwah, vɨnahkɨr, ɬira.
This is one of the less-common roots for 'six', and is found only in the Hurza and Maroua groups. There is a sporadic change *m→ᵐb in Mbuko, along with sporadic loss of *ɗ.

1Proto-Hurza *marka six six 1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ᵐbərka six six 1.2) Vame (Kinnaird) márkà six six

2Proto-Maroua *markɨɗ ʸ six six 2.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) merkeɗ(e) six 2.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) merkiɗ six (6) six (6) 2.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) merki six 2.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) mɛ̀rkɛ́ʼ six six
mits v. to extinguish éteindre (8 groups, 14 languages) B rel. to: mɨts.
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to put out a fire'. This root is very similar to the root for 'to die', the only difference is that *i is reconstructed. It could possibly be a causative form, i.e. 'to cause (a fire) to die'. There is a regular word-final change *ts→t in several groups.

1Proto-Bata *miitɨ extinguish éteindre 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) miitən Eteindre ;

2Proto-Daba *muts, mitsiʔn extinguish éteindre 2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəmutʃkahaw quench, extinguish éteindre 2.2) Daba (Lienhard) mìtʃīʼn éteindre

3Proto-Mafa *mɨtsa extinguish éteindre 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) mətsa quench, extinguish éteindre

4Proto-Hurza *muⁿdzɨja extinguish éteindre 4.1) Vame (Kinnaird) mūⁿdʒíjā extinguish ; put out éteindre

5Proto-Mandara *mɨtsɨ extinguish éteindre 5.1) Matal (Branger) mamatsiŋ ala, mamatʃiŋ ala extinguish éteindre 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) metʃe éteindre 5.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɨ́mt͡sá káːɾa quench, extinguish

6Proto-Mofu *mat ʸ extinguish éteindre 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mētéŋ éteindre 6.2) Muyang (Smith) met cause to die, extinguish éteindre 6.2.1) Muyang (Smith) metiŋ cause to die, extinguish faire mourir, éteindre 6.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) mémtsèj etindre (feu)

7Proto-Maroua *muts extinguish éteindre 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mutʃ éteindre le feu, fais mourir le feu 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mutʃa quench, extinguish éteindre

8Proto-Lamang *mɨtaj extinguish éteindre 8.1) Hdi (Bramlett) mətaj to extinguish a fire éteindre un feu
mɨɗɨp num. seven sept (6 groups, 15 languages) C syn: tasɨraɗ.
This is one of two widely distributed roots for 'seven'. This root is found in the languages of the Nigerian Plains. The *p is not present in the Tera group. In Proto-Higi there has been a change *ɗ→r, which is regular in all languages except for Psikye, and also a sporadic change *m→ᵐb. *p was realised as [p] in medial position and [f] in word-final position in Proto-Central Chadic. The widespread presence of /f/ implies that the *p was the final consonant, and that the final *n in the Bata and Higi groups is an addition to the root.

1Proto-Bata *mɨɗɨfiŋ seven sept 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) mə̀ɗə̀fə seven 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ᵐbərəfiŋ seven Sept

2Proto-Tera *muɗ seven sept 2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) mut seven (7) 2.2) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) muɗ seven

3Proto-Sukur *maɗaf seven sept 3.1) Sukur (David) maɗaf seven 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) maɗaf seven

4Proto-Margi *mɨɗɨfaw seven sept 4.1) Bura (Blench) murfa Seven 4.2) Margi South (Harley) mədəfau seven

5Proto-Mandara *mɨɗɨfɨ seven sept 5.1) Matal (Branger) mᵊ̄ɗᵊ̀f nine neuf 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) maɗəfá,-ə seven sept 5.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùːɗʲɨ̀fa seven (7)

6Proto-Higi *ᵐbirfɨŋ seven sept 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ᵐbùrfúᵑgə́ Seven 6.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ᵐbrfaᵑgo seven 6.3) Kirya (Blench) ᵐbìrfə́ᵑg seven 6.4) Psikye (Angelo) ᵐbərəfáŋ seven 6.5) Bana (Lienhard) ᵐbə̀rf(ə́)ŋ sept (7)
mɨts v. to die mourir (18 groups, 47 languages) A rel. to: mits.
This is one of the most widely-attested Central Chadic roots, and reflexes are found in all eighteen groups. There is a regular change *ts→t which took place independently in several different groups. The resulting *t has the unestablished reflexes *d in Proto-Kotoko North, *ɗ in Proto-Musgum and *r in Proto-Kotoko South. If the Sukur word is cognate, then we have the regular change *ts→s, and the initial *m has the irregular reflex /ŋʷ/.

1Proto-Bata *mɨt die mourir 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) mətən Mourir 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) mɨtə mourir

2Proto-Daba *mɨts die mourir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɑtʃ die mourir 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mtʃɑ die mourir 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəmətʃ die mourir 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) mə̀tʃ la mort, mourir

3Proto-Mafa *mɨtsa die mourir 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) mətsa mourir 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) mətsa die mourir

4Proto-Tera *mɨt die mourir 4.1) Tera (Newman) məɗi die 4.1.1) Tera (Newman) məɗi death 4.1.2) Tera (Newman) məɗi corpse 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) mu̱t die

5Proto-Sukur *ŋʷɨs die mourir 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) ŋus die

6Proto-Hurza *mɨts die mourir 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mats to die mourir 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) mə́tsà die mourir

7Proto-Margi *mɨta die mourir 7.1) Bura (Blench) mta To die Past tense mta

8Proto-Mandara *mɨtsa die mourir 8.1) Matal (Branger) mamtsaj die mourir 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) mɨtʃé 1 mourir 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) mtsa die, death 8.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɨ̀mtsᵊga die 8.5) Dghwede (Frick) mtsa death, to die

9Proto-Mofu *mɨt die mourir 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mə̀t die mourir 9.2) Mada (Nkoumou) mamta mourir 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) mat die mourir 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) mə̀t mourir 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) meməte die mourir 9.6) Merey (Gravina) mət die mourir, (être) mort 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məmtaj die mourir 9.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́məts die mourir 9.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) mémətsej mourir, la mort

10Proto-Maroua *muts die mourir 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mutʃ mourir, mort 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mutʃ die mourir 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) mutʃ mourir 10.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) múitʃ die mourir

11Proto-Lamang *mɨta die mourir 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) mta die 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) mətaj to die mourir

12Proto-Higi *mɨtɨ die mourir 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) mtə́ Die 12.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) mtə to die 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) mto die; dying 12.3) Psikye (Angelo) mtə́ die 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) m(ə)tí mourir, la mort

13Proto-Kotoko Island *matɨ die mourir 13.1) Buduma (McKone) matə die mourir

14Proto-Kotoko North *madɨ die mourir 14.1) Afade (Allison) madɨ die mourir 14.2) Mpade (Allison) màdɨ̀ die mourir 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) madi die mourir

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *mɨt die mourir 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) mɨti die mourir 15.2) Mser (Allison) mato die mourir

16Proto-Kotoko South *mara die mourir 16.1) Zina (Odden) màrà die mourir

17Proto-Musgum *mɨɗɨ ʸ die mourir 17.1) Vulum (Tourneux) miri mourir 17.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) miri mourir 17.3) Mbara (Tourneux) miʼdiŋ die

18Proto-Gidar *ɨmta die mourir 18.1) Gidar (Hungerford) əmta mourir 18.2) Gidar (Schuh) umta mourir

19Shoa Arabic mât; môt; majjit die mourir