n


naɬɨj nm. tongue langue (6 groups, 11 languages) A syn: ɣanaɗ ʸ, ɗɨrɨnɨh ʸ.
This is one of three roots for 'tongue', and is found primarily in the eastern part of the Central Chadic area. There is a regular change *ɬ→s in Proto-Kotoko South and Mser, and *ɬ→ʃ in Mpade. The final *j is realised as /i/ in Proto-Kotoko Centre, and as the palatalisation prosody in Proto-Hurza and Proto-Mofu, which are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Hurza *mɨnaɬ ʸ tongue langue 1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mireɬ tongue langue (de la bouche) 1.2) Vame (Kinnaird) mə̄néɬ tongue langue (partie de la bouche)

2Proto-Mofu hɨrnaɬ ʸ tongue langue 2.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) hərneɬ language langue, langage

3Proto-Kotoko North *enɬi tongue langue 3.1) Afade (Allison) enɬi tongue langue 3.2) Mpade (Allison) ènʃì tongue langue 3.3) Malgbe (Allison) enɬɨ tongue langue

4Proto-Kotoko Centre *enɬi tongue langue 4.1) Lagwan (Allison) nɬi tongue langue 4.2) Mser (Allison) ensi; enʃi tongue langue

5Proto-Kotoko South *nɨsa tongue langue 5.1) Zina (Odden) ànisə̀ tongue langue 5.2) Mazera (Allison) ɨnsa tongue langue

6Proto-Musgum *naɬaj tongue langue 6.1) Mbara (Tourneux) naɬaj tongue
nɨɣ v. to see voir (7 groups, 19 languages) A
The final *ɣ has the reflexes *h in Proto-Maroua and *k in Proto-Mofu. It is deleted in Proto-Tera. In Jimi it has the reflex /ᵑg/. These are all irregular or unestablished.

1Proto-Bata *nɨɣ see voir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) nee see 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) nee 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) nəᵑgən Regarder ;

2Proto-Tera *na see voir 2.1) Tera (Newman) na this 2.1.1) Tera (Newman) na see 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) na see 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) na when 2.2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) na there

3Proto-Mandara *nɨɣa see voir 3.1) Matal (Branger) mànᵊ̀ŋāj see voir 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) naká voir, regarder 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) náha prévoir, constater, regarder, remplir, mûrir, redire l'avenir - voir 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) na see 3.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) nɨ̀ʁga see

4Proto-Mofu *nɨk see voir 4.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ménə̀kéj regarder, 4.1.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) ménə̀kéj voir 4.1.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) ménə̀kéj examiner 4.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́nək look regarder, voir, examiner

5Proto-Maroua *nahi see voir 5.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) nàhíʼ see voir

6Proto-Lamang *nɨɣa see voir 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) nɣa see 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) nəɣaj to look, to see regarder, voir

7Proto-Higi *nɨɣɨ see voir 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) nə nə 1.see.2.kind of shrub 7.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) negə see 7.3) Kirya (Blench) nə̀ to look 7.4) Psikye (Angelo) nəwə look 7.4.1) Psikye (Angelo) naké see 7.5) Bana (Lienhard) nìɣə̀ voir
nɨh v. to ripen mûrir (16 groups, 34 languages) A
The basic meaning of this verb refers to the ripening of fruit or of millet. The final *h has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process. It has the unestablished reflexes *ɣ in Proto-Margi and *k in Proto-Higi.

1Proto-Bata *na ripen mûrir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) na fill, become full 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) na ripen 1.1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) na be ready for use 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) nan 1 - Remplir ;; 2 - Mûrir

2Proto-Daba *na ripen mûrir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ripen, become ripe mûrir 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ferment fermenter 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ferment (alcohol) (v) fermenter 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ripen mûrir 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəna (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit) 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəna ripen, become ripe mûrir 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) mûrir

3Proto-Mafa *nɨh ripen mûrir 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ⁿdəh mûrir 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) nəhaj ripen, become ripe mûrir 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) manha (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit)

4Proto-Sukur *nɨh ripen murir 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) nəh ripe; fully grown and ready to be eaten.

5Proto-Hurza *nah ripen mûrir 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) nah ripen murir 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ⁿdə́hā ripen faire mûrir 5.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) ⁿdə́hà ripen ; mature mûrir

6Proto-Margi *nɨɣa ripen mûrir 6.1) Bura (Blench) nɣa To be ripe, to ripen 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) na/ə ripen

7Proto-Mandara *hɨna ripen mûrir 7.1) Matal (Branger) màhᵊ̀nāj ripen mûrir 7.2) Malgwa (Löhr) na ripen

8Proto-Mofu *nɨhʷ ripen mûrir 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ānúhʷ mature, ripe mûr 8.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) nùhʷ ripen mûrir ; cuire 8.2) Mada (Nkoumou) mánah cuire (mûrir) 8.2.1) Mada (Nkoumou) ménehéŋ cuire (faire-, faire mûrir) 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) nah ripen, mature mûrir 8.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) manaha ripe mûr (fruit) 8.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) menehi murir 8.4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) menehe ripen, become ripe mûrir 8.5) Merey (Gravina) nah (be) mature mûrir, être mûr, mature 8.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) mənəhej (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit) 8.6.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mənəhej ripen, become ripe mûrir 8.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́nəh mûrir

9Proto-Maroua *nɨh ʸ ripen mûrir 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) nih(i) remplir 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) nih(i) fermenter 9.1.2) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) nih(i) mûrir 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mənihan (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit) 9.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mənihaŋ ripen, become ripe mûrir

10Proto-Higi *naka ripen mûrir 10.1) Psikye (Angelo) naká ripe 10.2) Bana (Lienhard) náká mûrir (grains, chose qu'on doit préparer)

11Proto-Kotoko Island *no ripen murir 11.1) Buduma (McKone) no mûrir, être cuite.

12Proto-Kotoko North *na ripen mûrir 12.1) Afade (Allison) no na (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit) 12.2) Mpade (Allison) ripen, become ripe mûrir 12.2.1) Mpade (Allison) (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit) 12.3) Malgbe (Allison) nawun ripen, become ripe mûrir 12.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) nawun (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit)

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *naha ripen mûrir 13.1) Mser (Allison) tɨna ripen, become ripe mûrir 13.1.1) Mser (Allison) naha (be) ripe (être) mûr (fruit)

14Proto-Kotoko South *wɨnha ripen mûrir 14.1) Zina (Odden) wùnhà ripen, become ripe mûrir

15Proto-Musgum *niji ripen mûrir 15.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) niji entrer, faire l'amour 15.1.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) niji mûrir

16Proto-Gidar *ɨnaha ripen murir 16.1) Gidar (Schuh) ənaha murir 16.2) Gidar (Hungerford) unaha mûrir
nɨvi n. elephant éléphant (2 groups, 5 languages) B syn: ᵐbɨlala ʸ, dzɨwɨn ʸ, gɨwɨn.
This is one of four roots for 'elephant' which have been reconstructed, and is only found in some of the Kotoko languages. The change from *v to *f in Proto-Kotoko North is a regular change. The *n is only found in Lagwan. There is a common sporadic sound change in these groups *n to *r, but there is no evidence of a regular change in the other direction, and so *n is preferred in the reconstruction.

1Proto-Kotoko North *arfɨ elephant éléphant 1.1) Afade (Allison) arfi elephant éléphant 1.2) Mpade (Allison) àrfù elephant éléphant 1.3) Malgbe (Allison) arfɨ elephant éléphant

2Proto-Kotoko Centre *rɨvi elephant éléphant 2.1) Lagwan (Allison) nɨvi elephant éléphant 2.2) Mser (Allison) arvi elephant éléphant