p


pakʷaɗɨp nm. lung poumon (15 groups, 36 languages) C
This root is complex to reconstruct. It contains four consonants, and the two medial consonants have been lost in several groups. In many cases this has been compensated for by the reduplication of one of the other root consonants.
Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in word-initial position and [f] in word-final position. The initial *p has the reflex *b in several groups. The final *p
f has the irregular reflex *v in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko South.
*kʷ has the reflex *gʷ in Gude, Proto-Margi, Proto-Maroua, Proto-Higi and Proto-Musgum, which is regular only in Proto-Higi. In Proto-Tera it has the unestablished reflex *hʷ. The labialisation component has been lost in Proto-Mofu, and has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in Proto-Tera and Proto-Musgum, along with several individual languages, which are common sporadic processes. The *kʷ has been lost completely in several groups, probably through the sporadic changes *kʷ→hʷ→h→0.
The *
ɗ is retained only in Daba, and has the reflex /ʔ/ in Giziga Marva. Elsewhere its existence can be deduced from compensatory reduplication. Where either *kʷ or *ɗ is lost, many languages have compensated for the lost material by reduplicating a syllable. In Gude, Proto-Tera, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi, there is reduplication, though this could be triggered by the loss of either the initial *p or the *ɗ. However, in Mofu-Gudur and Proto-Maroua, the *p, *kʷ and *f are still present, implying that another consonant has been lost. The evidence for *ɗ is indirect, but cannot be ignored.

1Proto-Bata *bɨfi ʸ, *gʷɨgʷɨfi lungs poumon 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) gùgùfínə lungs 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) bjəfi poumon

2Proto-Daba *pakʷaɗɨf lung poumon 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ɣɑmpɑf lung poumon 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ɣɑlɑ kɑmpɑf lung poumon 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) bahaf lung poumon 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) pòkòɗūf le poumon

3Proto-Mafa *baf lung poumon 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) baf poumon 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) bef lung poumon

4Proto-Tera *huhup lung poumon 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) khukhup lung

5Proto-Sukur *bɨf lungs poumon 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) bəf lung in inside the stomach

6Proto-Hurza *baf, *kʷɨkʷɨfa lung poumon 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) baf lungs poumon 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) kùkùfà lung poumon

7Proto-Margi *gʷagʷavi lungs poumon 7.1) Margi South (Harley) gʷagʷavi lungs 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) guguvi lungs

8Proto-Mandara *pɨfa lungs poumon 8.1) Matal (Branger) pafaf lungs poumon 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) bə́fa,-ə poumon

9Proto-Mofu *abahaf lungs poumon 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ᵐbèf lung poumon 9.2) Mada (Nkoumou) amᵐbahaf lung poumon 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) pahav lung poumon 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) abaf lung poumon m. 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) abaf lung poumon 9.6) Merey (Gravina) baᵐbaf lung le poumon 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) boᵐbof lung poumon 9.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) babəkaf lung poumon (Gudur)

10Proto-Maroua *babagʷaf lung poumon 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) boboᵑgof(Mt), bofoko(Mj) poumons 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) bubuʼof lung poumon 10.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) baagaf poumons

11Proto-Lamang *bɨf lung poumon 11.1) Hdi (Bramlett) bəf lung le poumon

12Proto-Higi *gʷɨgʷɨfi lung poumon 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) gugufə lung 12.2) Kirya (Blench) gùgùfí lungs 12.3) Bana (Lienhard) bə̀fì poumons

13Proto-Kotoko North *kafo lung poumon 13.1) Afade (Allison) gafo lung poumon 13.2) Mpade (Allison) kófo lung poumon

14Proto-Kotoko South *ɣʷavɨ lung poumon 14.1) Mazera (Allison) ɣʷavɣʷavɨ lung poumon

15Proto-Musgum *bubugaf lung poumon 15.1) Vulum (Tourneux) baagaf poumon 15.2) Mbara (Tourneux) bubugaf lung
paɮa n. upper arm avant-bras (6 groups, 10 languages) C rel. to: hɨpaɬ ʸ; syn: dzɨvɨ ʸ, hɨra.
This root is probably related to the root *hɨpaɬ ʸ 'shoulder'. In three of the groups the *p is realised as /b/, and in two groups the initial consonant has been prenasalised. In all except two of the groups, the *ɮ is realised as /l/, which is an unestablished change.

1Proto-Daba *palalaŋ ʸ arm bras 1.1) Gavar (Viljoen) mɑpeleleŋ arms bras

2Proto-Hurza *baɮa upper arm avant-bras 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) baɮa upper arm partie supérieure du bras

3Proto-Maroua *baɮa arm bras 3.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) hirbaɮa muscle du bras, bras, suprérieur humérus

4Proto-Higi *pɨla hand main 4.1) Kirya (Blench) pə̀là hand

5Proto-Kotoko North *ᵐbala arm bras 5.1) Afade (Allison) ᵐbɨla arm bras 5.2) Mpade (Allison) ᵐbala arm bras 5.2.1) Mpade (Allison) ᵐbala forearm avant-bras 5.2.2) Mpade (Allison) ᵐbala upper arm bras supérieur 5.3) Malgbe (Allison) ᵐbala arm bras 5.4) Maltam (Allison) ᵐbala arm bras

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *mpala forearm avant-bras 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) mpala arm bras 6.2) Mser (Allison) mpala arm bras
pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸ v. whistle siffler (6 groups, 18 languages) B cf: vats, viɮ, v.
Two alternative roots are proposed due to the contradictory evidence. The data from the Daba, Mafa and Mofu groups supports reconstructing the palatalisation prosody, whilst the data from the other groups indicates that the vowel *i should be reconstructed. *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in word-initial position. The word may therefore have an onomatapoeic origin.

1Proto-Bata *fikʷ whistle siffler 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) fiku whistle 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) fikʷən Siffler avec la bouche ;

2Proto-Daba *fɨfakʷ ʸ whistle siffler 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) fefekʷ whistle (v) siffler 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) fəfek whistle (v) siffler 2.2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) fəfək whistle (v) siffler

3Proto-Mafa *fɨkʷ ʸ whistle siffler 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) fʉkʷ siffler 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) fəfkʷa hiss siffler (serpent) 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) fafkʷa blow souffler 3.2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) fafkʷa whistle (v) siffler

4Proto-Mandara *fikʷa whistle siffler 4.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) fikʷá siffler 4.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) fikʷa siffler 4.3) Malgwa (Löhr) fiikʷa whistle 4.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) fàfíkʷa whistle (v) 4.5) Dghwede (Frick) fəge to blow

5Proto-Mofu *fɨkʷ ʸ whistle siffler 5.1) Muyang (Smith) fikʷej whistle siffler 5.2) Moloko (Friesen) fokaj whistle with your lips siffler avec les lèvres 5.3) Zulgo (Haller) fèfekʷé siffler 5.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mefukʷe dədœ hiss siffler (serpent) 5.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mefukʷe siffler 5.4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) fuk blow souffler 5.5) Merey (Gravina) fəfəkʷ blow, hiss siffler (serpent), souffler 5.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) fáfákʷ siffler 5.6.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) fáfákʷ whistle (with mouth, without instrument), call by whistling (a dog, goat) siffler (avec la bouche, sans instrument), appeler en sifflant (un chien, chèvre)

6Proto-Higi *figʷe whistle siffler 6.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) figʷe whistle
pitsɨ nf. sun soleil (14 groups, 45 languages) A
In Proto-Central Chadic [p] and [f] were allophones of *p, but they split into separate phonemes by the time of the group proto-languages. [p] was the word-initial allopohone of *p, and so *p is found in many groups. *f is the reflex in Proto-Bata, Proto-Tera, Proto-Mandara, Proto-Lamang, Proto-Kotoko South and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Higi *v being a development from *f. There is no known rule to account for this change. *ts has the reflex *s in Proto-Sukur (regular) and in Proto-Maroua (irregular). It has the regular reflex *t in Proto-Lamang and Proto-Musgum, with Proto-Tera *ɗ being an unestablished development from *t.

1Proto-Bata *fitɨ sun soleil 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) fitən Soleil, s'emploie aussi pour désigner le jour comme durée. 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) fətə soleil, jour 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) fete le soleil

2Proto-Daba *pɨts ʸ sun soleil 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pes daytime journée 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pes sun soleil 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) piʃ sun soleil 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) piʃ day jour 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) pis sun soleil 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) pītʃ le soleil, le jour

3Proto-Mafa *pats sun soleil 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) páts soleil, jour (lumière) 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) pas day jour 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) pas sun soleil

4Proto-Tera *fɨɗa sun soleil 4.1) Tera (Newman) fəɗa sun 4.1.1) Tera (Newman) fəɗa day 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗa day 4.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗa sun 4.2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) fu̱ɗar day

5Proto-Sukur *pis sun soleil 5.1) Sukur (David) pis sun 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) pis sun; the star that shine in the sky during the day and give the earth heat and light.

6Proto-Hurza *pats sun soleil 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pats sun soleil 6.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pats day jour (m) 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ápās sun soleil

7Proto-Margi *pɨtsi sun soleil 7.1) Bura (Blench) ptʃi Day (when counting) 7.1.1) Bura (Blench) ptʃi Sun 7.2) Margi South (Harley) pətʃi sun. day 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) pətʃi sun

8Proto-Mandara *fatsɨ ʸ sun soleil 8.1) Matal (Branger) āfàts sun soleil 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) patsa,-a jour 8.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) patsa,-ə soleil 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) vatʃija sun, daylight 8.4) Glavda (Owens) fač day, sun 8.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) fàt͡ʃíja sun 8.4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) dvàt͡ʃīja day 8.5) Dghwede (Frick) fitʃe sun, day

9Proto-Mofu *pats sun soleil 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) fat sun soleil 9.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) fat l´heure du jour 9.2) Muyang (Smith) fɑt sun ; day soleil; jour 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) fat sun soleil 9.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) fat day jour; moment 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) pat soleil m. 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) pat sun soleil 9.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) həpət day jour 9.6) Merey (Gravina) pat soleil 9.6.1) Merey (Gravina) həpat day jour, journée, midi 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) pat sun soleil 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas soleil 9.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas jour 9.8.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas moment, heure 9.8.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) pas soleil 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas day, sun soleil 9.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas jour, lumière 9.9.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pas moment, heure 9.9.3) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) papas jour

10Proto-Maroua *pas sun soleil 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) pas sun soleil 10.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) pas soleil 10.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) pǎs sun soleil

11Proto-Lamang *fiti sun soleil 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) fítí sun 11.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) vítá day 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) fitik day, sun le jour, le soleil

12Proto-Higi *vɨtsi sun soleil 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vetʃi sun 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vitʃi sun 12.3) Kirya (Blench) və̀tʃí sun 12.4) Psikye (Angelo) vətʃi day 12.5) Bana (Lienhard) v(ə)tʃí soleil, jour 12.5.1) Bana (Lienhard) ftʃà jour

13Proto-Kotoko South *fatsa sun soleil 13.1) Zina (Odden) ávàtʃá sun soleil 13.2) Mazera (Allison) fatʃa sun soleil

14Proto-Musgum *futɨj sun soleil 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) futii soleil 14.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) futii soleil 14.3) Mbara (Tourneux) futaj sun 14.4) Muskum (Tourneux) fasa soleil
pɨɗakʷ ʸ nm. razor rasoir (9 groups, 13 languages) A cf: beli.
It is not possible to determine whether this root was present in Proto-Central Chadic, or whether it was an early technological innovation that spread through the langauges at a later point. The regularity of the root is consistent with an early origin. *ɗ has the regular reflex /r/ in Bura, Kirya and Bana.

1Proto-Bata *pɨɗɨkʷa ʸ razor rasoir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) píɗə̀kʷá type of razor with triangular shaped iron blade

2Proto-Daba *pɨɗakʷ ʸ razor rasoir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pədekʷ razor rasoir 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) pjɗeɗ razor rasoir 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) pìdēk le rasoir indigène

3Proto-Mafa *pɨɗakʷ ʸ razor rasoir 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) pəɗekʷ razor rasoir

4Proto-Sukur *pɨɗakʼʷ ʸ razor rasoir 4.1) Sukur (David) pidoekʼ razor 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) piɗikʼu razor

5Proto-Hurza *pɨɗakʷ ʸ razor rasoir 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pəɗœk razor rasoir

6Proto-Margi *parkʷɨ ʸ razor rasoir 6.1) Bura (Blench) pjerku Razor blade 6.1.1) Bura (Blench) perku Razor blade

7Proto-Mandara *pɨɗakʷ ʸ razor rasoir 7.1) Matal (Branger) pᵊ̀ɗʲɛ́kʷ razor rasoir

8Proto-Mofu *pɨɗakʷ ʸ razor rasoir 8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́pəɗekʷ rasoir (pointe effilée en fer)

9Proto-Higi *pɨɗikʷ razor rasoir 9.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) pəɗi razor 9.2) Kirya (Blench) pìrúkú razor 9.3) Bana (Lienhard) pìrə̀ rasoir, lame
pɨn v. itch démanger (4 groups, 11 languages) A
The basic meaning is to scratch an itch. The change *n to *r in the Mofu group is regular. This change is also found in Cuvok, but is a borrowing from Mofu-Gudur. (Apart from the Cuvok borrowing, the root is not found in languages of the South sub-branch.) There is reduplication in several languages, which can indicate that an initial consonant, such as *h, has been lost. Proto-Central Chadic *p has the reflex *f in all groups, which is not expected in this position.

1Proto-Mafa *fafɨr itch démanger 1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) mefefrej itch (the itch) démangeaison

2Proto-Hurza *fɨfɨn itch démanger 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) fəfan scratch; itch gratter; démanger 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) fə̄fə́nà itch ; scratch_oneself gratter_se

3Proto-Mofu *fɨr itch démanger 3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) móffor démanger (causer des démangeaisons) 3.2) Moloko (Friesen) far scratch gratter 3.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) fər scrape (v) gratter, racler 3.4) Merey (Gravina) fəfar gratter 3.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) məferej ba itch (the itch) démangeaison 3.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) fáfər (se) gratter, frotter

4Proto-Maroua *fun itch démanger 4.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) fun vú se gratter le corps, démanger 4.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) funa vo itch (the itch) démangeaison
pɨra v. to untie dénouer (15 groups, 32 languages) A
Proto-Central Chadic *p has the irregular reflex *f in Proto-Kotoko Island and Proto-Kotoko North, and *v as an irregular development of *f in Proto-Kotoko Centre. *r has the reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba due to a regular change.

1Proto-Bata *pɨrɨ untie délier 1.1) Bata (Boyd) pə́r melt; untie 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) pərə untie, unfold, unwrap 1.2.1) Gude (Hoskinson) pərə 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) pərən Détacher ;

2Proto-Daba *pɨl untie délier 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) pɑ̀l lɑ́xɑ̀ɾɮɑ̀k untie dénouer 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) pəl untie dénouer 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) pəl loosen desserrer 2.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) pəl release relâcher 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) pə̄l détacher, déplier

3Proto-Mafa *pɨr untie délier 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ́pə́r délier 3.2) Cuvok (Ndokobaï) mepəlej délier

4Proto-Tera *pɨri untie délier 4.1) Tera (Newman) pəri untie

5Proto-Sukur *pɨr untie détacher 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) pər untie

6Proto-Hurza *para untie délier 6.1) Vame (Kinnaird) párā 1 untie ; let loose détacher 6.1.1) Vame (Kinnaird) párā 2 untie délier

7Proto-Margi *pili untie délier 7.1) Bura (Blench) mpili To loose, untie 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) pəlija/a untie

8Proto-Mandara *pɨla untie délier 8.1) Matal (Branger) màpᵊl ə̀wdá untie délier 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) pəla détacher, relâcher 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) pálé détacher, libérer, détacher en parlant d'une corde ou d'une ficelle, défaire, dénouer - voir * pele 8.3.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) pélé détacher - v. int. = pálé 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) pəla untie, loosen, eg. goat 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) pɨlga untie

9Proto-Mofu *pɨl untie délier 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) pə̄l se détacher 9.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) pēléŋ detach ; untie détacher ; dénouer 9.1.2) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) məpəleŋ détacher ; aplanir 9.1.3) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) məpəláj se détacher 9.1.4) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) pə̄léŋ détacher un objet 9.2) Zulgo (Haller) pə̀l se détacher, se lâcher 9.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) mepəla di detacher 9.4) Merey (Gravina) pəla untie dénouer, délier

10Proto-Lamang *pɨl untie délier 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) pəl untie 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) pəlaj to untie détacher

11Proto-Higi *pɨl untie délier 11.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) pələntə untie 11.2) Kirya (Blench) mpə́l to untie, loose 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) p(ə́)lí déplier, détacher, suspendre, étaler, déballer

12Proto-Kotoko Island *felu untie dénouer 12.1) Buduma (McKone) felu untie dénouer

13Proto-Kotoko North *fal untie délier 13.1) Mpade (Allison) fàl jo untie dénouer 13.2) Malgbe (Allison) fal ja untie dénouer

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨl untie déllier 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨlun he (vɨl) untie dénouer 14.2) Mser (Allison) val jo untie dénouer

15Proto-Gidar *ɨppɨla untie détacher 15.1) Gidar (Schuh) əppəla détacher 15.2) Gidar (Hungerford) əpɨla délier, détacher, dénouer
pɨri n. butterfly papillon (11 groups, 17 languages)
In many cases, this root is reduplicated, and in some cases there is a prefix, which implies that there may have been more material at the start of this root, or else that the word was a nominalisation of a root with a different meaning. *r has the reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba as part of a regular change. The final *i is reconstructed from its presence in the three Consonant Prosody groups, Proto-Bata, Proto-Margi and Proto-Higi.

1Proto-Bata *pɨri butterfly papillon 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) pə́rípə̀rínə butterfly, moth

2Proto-Daba *pula butterfly papillon 2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) məpulpula butterfly papillon

3Proto-Tera *pɨr butterfly papillon 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) pu̱rmapu̱r butterfly

4Proto-Sukur *pɨr butterfly papillon 4.1) Sukur (David) muɮəpərpər butterfly 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) məɮəpərpər butterfly; a fling insect with a long thin body and four large, usually brightly coloured and wings.

5Proto-Hurza *pala ʸ, pɨra butterfly papillon 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mapərok papillon 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) pélpélē butterfly papillon

6Proto-Margi *pir butterfly papillon 6.1) Bura (Blench) pirpir Butterfly or moth 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) pərpər butterfly

7Proto-Mandara *pala butterfly papillon 7.1) Malgwa (Löhr) napalapala butterfly gen. 7.1.1) Malgwa (Löhr) maləm madʒaᵐbala butterfly gen. 7.1.2) Malgwa (Löhr) malampalapala butterfly 7.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àpàlàpàjáʒɨ̀gla butterfly

8Proto-Mofu *pɨla butterfly papillon 8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) mapəla-pəla papillon (nom gén.)

9Proto-Maroua *pɨla butterfly papillon 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mapalapala papillon 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) miplapla (Mt) mapalapala papillon 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) muplapla butterfly papillon

10Proto-Higi *pɨli butterfly papillon 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) kʷápàlpà Butterfly. 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) paləpa butterfly 10.3) Bana (Lienhard) pə́lpə́lì papillon

11Proto-Gidar *pala ʷ butterfly papillon 11.1) Gidar (Hungerford) motopolo-polo papillon
pɨrɨs ʸ n. horse cheval (10 groups, 32 languages) A syn: takʷ, bɨskʷan.
This root is a borrowing from the Arabic 'FRS', denoting a mare. The Arabic /f/ appears as a Proto-Central Chadic *p, since there was no *p/*f contrast in the early stages of Central Chadic, and [p] was the word-inital allophone. Likewise, the *r has the regular reflex *l in the languages of the North sub-branch and Proto-Daba. However, it is also realised as *l in Proto-Mafa and Proto-Hurza, where *r is expected. The palatalisation prosody is present in all groups where it is expected, except for Gidar.

1Proto-Daba *pɨlɨs ʸ horse cheval 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) pìlís le cheval

2Proto-Mafa *pɨlas ʸ horse cheval 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) píléʃ cheval 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) pəlez horse cheval

3Proto-Tera *pɨrsi, pirʃa horse cheval 3.1) Tera (Newman) pərsi horse 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) pu̱rsi horse 3.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) pu̱rsaᵑg horse-the 3.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) pirʃa horse

4Proto-Hurza *pɨlas ʸ horse cheval 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) pəles horse cheval 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) pə̄léʃ horse cheval

5Proto-Mandara *pɨlɨsa ʸ horse cheval 5.1) Matal (Branger) pəlis, pəliʃ horse cheval 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) pɨrəʃé,-e cheval 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) bélsá cheval (m) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) bəlsa horse 5.5) Glavda (Owens) pəls horse 5.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) pɨ̀lːʃa horse

6Proto-Mofu *pɨlɨs ʸ horse cheval 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) pə̀lìs horse cheval 6.2) Moloko (Friesen) pəles horse cheval 6.3) Zulgo (Haller) pírís cheval m. 6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) pəles horse cheval 6.5) Merey (Gravina) pəles horse cheval 6.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) pəles horse cheval 6.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) pélés cheval 6.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pəles cheval

7Proto-Maroua *pɨlɨs ʸ horse cheval 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) pilis(i) Mt:plis ffd: putʃu cheval 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) piles horse cheval 7.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) piliʃ cheval

8Proto-Lamang *pɨlis horse cheval 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) pə́lís horse 8.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) pə́lísí horse 8.1.2) Lamang (Wolff) plís horse 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) pəlis horse le cheval

9Proto-Musgum *pɨlɨs ʸ horse cheval 9.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) aplis cheval 9.2) Vulum (Tourneux) aplis cheval 9.3) Mbara (Tourneux) pilis horse 9.4) Muskum (Tourneux) pleseke cheval

10Proto-Gidar *pɨlsa horse cheval 10.1) Gidar (Schuh) pəlsa cheval 10.2) Gidar (Hungerford) pɨɨlsa cheval
pɨtsiɗ n. ash cendres (7 groups, 17 languages) B
The *p has the reflex *f in several groups, even though *p is expected. In Proto-Mofu this has become *v, which is an irregular change. The subsequent change *v→b in Zulgo and Dugwor is regular. *ts has the reflex *t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Mofu, which is a regular process, and the *t has developed into /d/ in Buduma, which is an unestablished process. The Mofu North form may be a borrowing.There is no clear explanation for the presence of *u in Proto-Margi and Proto-Mandara. The *ɗ has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *fɨtiɗ ash cendres 1.1) Bata (Boyd) fɨ́té ash; I rubbed ash on my face; salt 1.2) Bachama (Skinner) fitœɗije ashes

2Proto-Tera *pɨsiɗ ash cendres 2.1) Tera (Newman) pədʒit ashes 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) pu̱ʒit ashes 2.3) Hwana (Harley) fíʃè ashes

3Proto-Margi *pɨtsɨɗu ash cendres 3.1) Kilba (Schuh) pətsəɗu ashes

4Proto-Mandara *fɨtsuɗ ash cendres 4.1) Glavda (Owens) áft ashes 4.1.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àft͡sa ashes 4.2) Dghwede (Frick) ftsutʼe ash

5Proto-Mofu *vɨta ʸ ash cendres 5.1) Muyang (Smith) viti ashes (powdery and cold) cendres poudreuses et froides 5.2) Moloko (Friesen) vəte ashes ceindre 5.3) Zulgo (Haller) bìté cendre (f.) dans laquelle on conserve des haricots etc. 5.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) bəta ashes cendres 5.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) pə́tsáw fumée, cendre

6Proto-Maroua *pɨtsɨ ʷ ash cendres 6.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) fútʃú cendre 6.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) aftʃo ashes cendres 6.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) futʃu cendre 6.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) pútʃúʼ ash cendre

7Proto-Kotoko Island *fɨdɨn ashes cendres 7.1) Buduma (McKone) fədən cendres.