s


sa v. to drink boire (18 groups, 48 languages) A
This is one of the most widely-attested roots in Central Chadic. It is found in all eighteen groups, and in almost all of the languages where there is data available. In the West Tera subgroup *s→z and in Kotoko Island *s→h. Both are regular changes.

1Proto-Bata *sa drink boire 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sa drink 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) san Boire ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) sa Boire

2Proto-Daba *sa drink boire 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) drink boire 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) drink boire 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) laj sa drink boire 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) boire

3Proto-Mafa *sɨ drink boire 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) drink boire 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) sa drink boire

4Proto-Tera *za drink boire 4.1) Tera (Newman) za drink 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) za drink

5Proto-Sukur *sɨ drink boire 5.1) Sukur (David) drink, to 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) drinking

6Proto-Hurza *sa drink boire 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) sa to drink boire 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sáwā drink boire

7Proto-Margi *sa drink boire 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) sa to drink 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) sa/a drink 7.3) Bura (Blench) sa To drink

8Proto-Mandara *sa drink boire 8.1) Matal (Branger) masaj drink boire 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) sá 1 boire 8.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) sá 2 absorber 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ʃa drink

9Proto-Mofu *sa drink boire 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) drink boire une boisson 9.2) Mada (Nkoumou) meʃe boire 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) se drink boire 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) sa boire 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) mese drink boire 9.6) Merey (Gravina) sa boire 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) masaj drink boire 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésēj boire 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) s ́ boire, téter

10Proto-Maroua *si drink boire 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) si goɗ drink boire 10.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʃi boire 10.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) sìíʼ drink boire

11Proto-Lamang *sa drink boire 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) sa drink 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) saj drink, smoke boire, fumer

12Proto-Higi *sa drink boire 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) drink 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) sa drink 12.3) Kirya (Blench) drink 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) boire

13Proto-Kotoko Island *hi drink boire 13.1) Buduma (McKone) xiə drink boire 13.2) Buduma (McKone) xii boire.

14Proto-Kotoko North *se drink boire 14.1) Afade (Allison) se; saun; sel drink boire 14.2) Mpade (Allison) drink boire 14.3) Malgbe (Allison) jawun drink boire

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *sa drink boire 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) sawun drink boire 15.2) Mser (Allison) se drink boire

16Proto-Kotoko South *sja drink 16.1) Zina (Odden) sjà drink boire

17Proto-Musgum *si drink boire 17.1) Vulum (Tourneux) si boire 17.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) si boire 17.3) Mbara (Tourneux) sii drink

18Proto-Gidar *ɨsa drink boire 18.1) Gidar (Schuh) wusa boire 18.2) Gidar (Hungerford) əəsa boire
sɨɗɨk v. to swallow avaler (5 groups, 11 languages) syn: ⁿda.
This root is less widespread than *ⁿda. The *k has the unestablished reflex *h in Podoko, but otherwise the root is stable.

1Proto-Mafa *sɨɗɨk swallow avaler 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) səɗək- avaler 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) səɗaka swallow avaler

2Proto-Hurza *sɨɗak swallow avaler 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) səɗak swallow avaler

3Proto-Mandara *tsɨɗɨhɨ swallow avaler 3.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) tsəɗəhə avaler

4Proto-Mofu *sɨɗɨk swallow avaler 4.1) Moloko (Friesen) səɗek movement of swallowing le mouvement d'avaler 4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) səɗak swallow avaler 4.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mesəɗke avaler 4.2.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) a səɗak avaler 4.3) Merey (Gravina) səɗaka swallow avaler 4.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) məsəɗekej swallow avaler 4.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) sə́ɗák avaler sans manger 4.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sə́ɗkʷ pénétrer 4.6.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sə́ɗkʷ plonger sous l'eau 4.6.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sə́ɗkʷ avaler sans mâcher

5Proto-Gidar *ɨsɗɨka swallow avaler 5.1) Gidar (Hungerford) əsɗəka avaler
sɨhʷani ʸ n. dream rêve (15 groups, 37 languages) B
The *s has the reflex *z in West Tera as part of a regular change. The change *n→r in Proto-Kotoko North and Mser is a common sporadic change. *hʷ is realised as /hʷ/ only in Podoko. The reflex is *w in several groups, and the consonant has been completely lost in other groups. This is a common sporadic process. In Proto-Margi it has the irregular reflex *ʔʷ. The palatalisation prosody is easily reconstructed, with evidence from all groups. *i can also be reconstructed based on the evidence from the Bata, Margi, Mandara and Lamang groups.

1Proto-Bata *sɨni ʸ dream rêve 1.1) Bata (Boyd) ʃìrí dream 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) sənii dream 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) sinin Rêver ; 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) ʃinəʼə songe, rêve

2Proto-Daba *sɨnɨ ʸ dream rêve 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) seŋseŋ dream (n) rêve 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ʃiŋʃiŋ dream (n) rêve 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) səsin dream (n) rêve 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) sìní rêver, le rêve

3Proto-Mafa *sɨwɨna ʸ dream rêve 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ńʃuwine rêve 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) suwana dream (n) rêve

4Proto-Tera *zine dream rêve 4.1) Tera (Newman) ʒine dream 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ʒine dream (n)

5Proto-Hurza *sɨwna ʸ dream rêve 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) sune dream rêve

6Proto-Margi *sɨʔʷɨni ʸ dream rêve 6.1) Bura (Blench) suni Dream 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) ʃiʼuni dream

7Proto-Mandara *sɨhʷani ʸ dream rêve 7.1) Matal (Branger) masasiŋaj, maʃasiŋaj, maʃaʃiŋaj masasiŋaj // masesiŋaj // maʃaʃiŋaj dream rêver 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) səhʷana,-i rêve 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ʃene rêve (m) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ʃine dream 7.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) sɨ́ᵑga dream (n)

8Proto-Mofu *sɨwna ʸ dream rêve 8.1) Zulgo (Haller) súná songe m., rêve m. 8.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) sʉne dream (n) rêve 8.3) Merey (Gravina) məsune dream (n) rêve 8.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) məsne dream (n) rêve 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) mesə́néj rêve

9Proto-Maroua *mɨsɨn ʸ dream rêve 9.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) məsin dream (n) rêve

10Proto-Lamang *sɨwani dream rêve 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) suwaŋa dream 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) suni dream le rêve

11Proto-Higi *sʲɨwɨn dream rêve 11.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) səwo dream 11.2) Kirya (Blench) ʃín dream, vision 11.2.1) Kirya (Blench) ʃìwù to dream 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) ʃǐw songer, rêver

12Proto-Kotoko North *saware dream rêve 12.1) Mpade (Allison) sware dream (n) rêve 12.2) Malgbe (Allison) jaware dream (n) rêve

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *sɨwane dream rêve 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) swane dream (n) rêve 13.2) Mser (Allison) sware dream (n) rêve

14Proto-Musgum *hɨjnɨ ʸ dream rêve 14.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) hiini être songeur

15Proto-Gidar *ɨssɨna ʸ dream rêve 15.1) Gidar (Hungerford) issine songe, rêve 15.2) Gidar (Schuh) issine/e rêve
sɨk ʸ n. leg jambe (3 groups, 15 languages) B syn: ʃi, sɨraj.
This root is only found in three adjacent groups. In Mafa, this root has the meaning 'foot', whilst the reflex of the root *sɨraj has the meaning 'leg'. In some languages of the Mandara group *k→g, which is an unestablished change.

1Proto-Mafa *sak ʸ leg jambe 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) sak pied 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) sek foot pied

2Proto-Mandara *sɨkɨ ʸ leg jambe 2.1) Matal (Branger) asik, aʃik leg jambe 2.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʃɨgé,-ə 1 pied, jambe 2.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʃɨ́ga leg 2.4) Dghwede (Frick) səge leg, foot

3Proto-Mofu *sɨk ʸ leg jambe 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sèk foot pied ; jambe 3.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑsɑk leg ; foot ; time ; foundation ; tyre pied; jambe; fondation; pneu 3.3) Mada (Nkoumou) ʃek jambe 3.4) Moloko (Friesen) asak foot; leg pied; jambe 3.5) Zulgo (Haller) sík jambe f., pied m. 3.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) sek leg jambe 3.7) Merey (Gravina) sik leg jambe, pied 3.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) sek leg jambe 3.8.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) sek foot pied 3.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) sék jambe 3.9.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) sék mesure 3.9.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) sék fois-un, deux.
sɨka n. field champ (3 groups, 5 languages) C syn: gʷɨvɨh, raj, ɣʷɨr.
This is the least widespread of four Central Chadic roots for 'field'. The great distance between the Bata group languages and the Kotoko languages makes it most probable that the forms presented here are not cognate.

1Proto-Bata *sɨka field champ 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) səkiirən Champ 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) sɨka champ 1.2.1) Sharwa səkha champ

2Proto-Kotoko North *sko field champ 2.1) Mpade (Allison) skó fields champs 2.2) Malgbe (Allison) sko fields champs

3Proto-Kotoko Centre *sxe field champ 3.1) Lagwan (Allison) sxe fields champs 3.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) sxe farm (n) ferme
sɨᵐbɨti ʸ nf. hair cheveux (5 groups, 8 languages) D syn: ᵑgʷɨts ʸ.
This root is found in the south-west of the Central Chadic area. The *ᵐb has reflexes including /ɓʷ/, /w/ and zero, none of which are known to be regular. The root is difficult to reconstruct with confidence.

1Proto-Bata *sɨɓʷɨti ʸ hair cheveux 1.1) Bata (Boyd) ʃewto hair of head, pubic hair 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) ʃəɓʷəti Cheveu(x) 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) suɓte les cheveux

2Proto-Sukur *suᵐbut ʸ hair cheveux 2.1) Sukur (David) ʃuᵐbut hair

3Proto-Mofu *sɨᵐbatakʷ ʸ hair cheveux 3.1) Moloko (Friesen) səᵐbetewk hair cheveux; poils

4Proto-Lamang *sɨwidi hair cheveux 4.1) Hdi (Bramlett) swidi hair les cheveux 4.1.1) Hdi (Bramlett) səwidi hair le poil, les cheveux

5Proto-Higi *sʲɨtsi hair cheveux 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ʃintji hair 5.2) Bana (Lienhard) sə̀tì un cheveu, un poil, une plume 5.2.1) Bana (Lienhard) ʃtì cheveux
sɨmɨt ʸ nm. broom balai (9 groups, 16 languages) D syn: kɨɬɨɗ, sɨrɨkʷ.
This is one of three common roots for 'broom'. There is a high degree of inconsistency between the forms that are attested, which may be partly due to the fact that this root has only been found in one language in several groups.

1Proto-Bata *sɨmtɨ ʸ broom balai 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ʃíntá -ə broom 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) ʃimtə balai

2Proto-Mafa *saᵐbak broom balai 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) saᵐbak broom balai

3Proto-Tera *siseeti broom balai 3.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ʃiʃieeti broom

4Proto-Sukur *sɨɓɨk broom balai 4.1) Sukur (David) səɓək broom

5Proto-Margi *simtu ʸ broom balai 5.1) Bura (Blench) ʃìmtù Broom made from this grass

6Proto-Mandara *samatɨ broom balai 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) samata,-ə balai

7Proto-Lamang *siʔʷit broom balai 7.1) Lamang (Wolff) siwit broom 7.2) Hdi (Bramlett) suʼit indigenous broom le balai indigène

8Proto-Higi *sʲɨmɨ broom balai 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ʃi̊mí Broom 8.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ʃime broom 8.3) Kirya (Blench) ʃímə́ broom 8.4) Psikye (Angelo) ʃimú broom 8.5) Bana (Lienhard) ʃə́m balai

9Proto-Kotoko Centre *msisi broom balai 9.1) Lagwan (Allison) mɨʃiʃi broom balai 9.2) Mser (Allison) mʃiʃi broom balai
sɨn v. to know savoir (17 groups, 41 languages) A
This is an extremely well-attested root, and is found in all groups except for the Musgum group.*s has the regular reflexes *z in the West Tera subgroup and *h in Kotoko Island. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, though here Proto-Margi has retained *n. *n has been lost in Sukur, which is an irregular process.

1Proto-Bata *sɨna know savoir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ʃii know 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) sɨnan Connaître 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) a sənakən reconnaître, savoir

2Proto-Daba *sɨn know savoir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) sɑn know connaître, savoir 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) sɑn remember se souvenir 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) sən know (something or someone) connaître, savoir 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) səŋ know (something or someone) connaître, savoir 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) səŋ know how to savoir (être capable de) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) sə̄n savoir, connaître

3Proto-Mafa *sɨna know savoir 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) sə́n connaître 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) səna know (something or someone) connaître, savoir

4Proto-Tera *zɨni know savoir 4.1) Tera (Newman) zəni know (connaitre)

5Proto-Sukur *sɨ know savoir 5.1) Sukur (David) know, understand, to 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) know; to have information in your mind as a result of experience or because you learned or been told it.

6Proto-Hurza *sɨna know savoir 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) san understand connaitre 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sə́nā 1 know ; be acquainted with connaître 6.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) sə́nā 2 know savoir

7Proto-Margi *sin know savoir 7.1) Margi South (Harley) sini know 7.2) Kilba (Schuh) zəⁿdi/ə know 7.3) Bura (Blench) siⁿda To know

8Proto-Mandara *sɨr know savoir 8.1) Matal (Branger) masəlaj know savoir 8.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) sɨ́rga know (something or someone)

9Proto-Mofu *sɨr know savoir 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sə̄r know savoir; savoir ou connaître 9.2) Muyang (Smith) sər get to know, know être en train de connaître, savoir 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) masəla connaître, savoir 9.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) masəla savoir (être capable de) 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) sar know savoir 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) mesəre know (something or someone) connaître, savoir 9.6) Merey (Gravina) sər connaître 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məsərej know (something or someone) connaître, savoir 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésə́réj savoir 9.8.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésə́réj conna"itre 9.8.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésə́réj reconna"itre 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sər savoir, connaître, reconnaître

10Proto-Maroua *sɨn know savoir 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sən gʷaf know (something or someone) connaître, savoir 10.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʃiŋ savoir

11Proto-Lamang *sɨna know savoir 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) sənaa know

12Proto-Higi *sɨna know savoir 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) sə̀nàtá Know 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) sinəgə know (something or someone) 12.3) Bana (Lienhard) sə́ná savoir, connaître

13Proto-Kotoko Island *hɨn know savoir 13.1) Buduma (McKone) hən know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir 13.2) Buduma (McKone) hən savoir, connaître.

14Proto-Kotoko North *sɨn, surun know savoir 14.1) Afade (Allison) surun know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir 14.2) Mpade (Allison) sɨ́n know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir

15Proto-Kotoko Centre *sɨn know savoir 15.1) Lagwan (Allison) sɨnwun (sɨn) know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir 15.2) Mser (Allison) sɨn know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir

16Proto-Kotoko South *sɨŋ know savoir 16.1) Zina (Odden) sə̀ (hà) know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir 16.2) Mazera (Allison) sɨᵑga know (sth. or s.o.) connaître, savoir

17Proto-Gidar *ɨsɨna know savoir 17.1) Gidar (Hungerford) əsɨna savoir, connaître 17.2) Gidar (Schuh) əsəna savoir
sɨraj nf. leg jambe (12 groups, 26 languages) B syn: ʃi, sɨk ʸ.
This root is the most widespread of the roots for 'leg'. In Proto-Tera, *z is expected from a regular *s→z change, but *s is present. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, the Daba group and in Cuvok. However, in the Mandara, Maroua and Higi groups we have /r/, and in Mafa we have /l/. In the Bata group *r has the unestablished reflex /ɗ/. *j has been reanalysed as *i in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko North, a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *sɨɗɨ leg jambe 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sə̀ɗá -ə (inher. poss., body part) foot, leg 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) səɗən Pied 1.2.1) Jimi (Djibi) ʃəranjən Jambe, partie qui se trouve en-dessous des genoux. 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) ʃiɗə jambe 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) səɗe la jambe

2Proto-Daba *sasalaj leg jambe 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) sɑsɑlɑj leg jambe

3Proto-Mafa *sasalaj leg jambe 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ʃeʃelaj jambe 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) sasalaj leg jambe

4Proto-Tera *sara leg jambe 4.1) Tera (Newman) sara leg 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) sara foot 4.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) sara leg

5Proto-Hurza *sɨraj leg jambe 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) saraj leg, foot jambe, pied 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sə̄láj leg jambe

6Proto-Margi *sil leg jambe 6.1) Bura (Blench) sil Foot

7Proto-Mandara *sɨra leg jambe 7.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) sérá pied (m), patte (f), roue (f) 7.2) Malgwa (Löhr) səra foot, leg

8Proto-Mofu *salaj leg jambe 8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sálaj leg, foot jambe, pied, patte 8.1.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sálaj fois (une -, deux -, etc.)

9Proto-Maroua *sir, sar leg jambe 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) sasala kiⁿdaŋ jambe, tibia 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) sasala siⁿdaŋ jambe, tibia 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sar foot pied 9.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sar leg jambe 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) sir pied

10Proto-Lamang *sɨla leg jambe 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) sə́rá leg 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) səla leg la jambe

11Proto-Higi *sɨra leg jambe 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) səra leg 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) sira foot 11.3) Kirya (Blench) sə́lá leg 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) səɗá foot 11.5) Bana (Lienhard) sə́ɗá pied, jambe, patte

12Proto-Kotoko North *sali leg jambe 12.1) Mpade (Allison) sálíó leg jambe
sɨrɨk ʸ n. jealousy jalousie (11 groups, 25 languages) B
This root, along with 'shame', is one of only two roots relating to emotional states that have been reconstructed. There is a regular change *s→z in Proto-Tera, and *r→l in the North sub-branch. *l is also expected in Proto-Daba, though *r is found. Support for the palatalisation prosody is not complete, but is present in most groups where it is a feature. The final *k has the reflex *h in some groups, and has been lost in others. This is an unestablished process. *n is found in its place in Proto-Maroua, which is also an unestablished change.

1Proto-Bata *sɨrɨhɨ jealousy jalousie 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sərəha be jealous 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) sərəhən Etre jaloux ;

2Proto-Daba *sɨrah ʸ jealousy jalousie 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) sərɑh jealousy jalousie 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) sərɑh (be) jealous (lit. do jealousy) (être) jaloux 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) sərah (be) jealous (être) jaloux 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) sə̀rèh s'enorgueillir, être jaloux, envier

3Proto-Mafa *sɨrak ʸ jealousy jalousie 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) sə́rák jalousie 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) səlek (be) jealous (être) jaloux 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) səlek jalousie

4Proto-Tera *ziri jealous jaloux 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ʒiri (be) jealous

5Proto-Sukur *sɨrɨh jealousy jalousie 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) sərəh jealousy

6Proto-Hurza *sɨrak jealousy jalousie 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) sərak jealousy jalousie

7Proto-Margi *silka jealousy jalousie 7.1) Bura (Blench) silka To envy, be jealous 7.1.1) Bura (Blench) silka Envy, jealousy

8Proto-Mandara *sɨlɨ jealousy jalousie 8.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʃirá,-ə jalousie 8.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ʃələŋa jealousy, rivalry 8.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) sɨ́lga (be) jealous 8.3.1) Glavda (Owens) s€l jealousy

9Proto-Mofu *sɨlɨk ʸ jealousy jalousie 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sīlík jealousy jalousie ; querelle 9.2) Muyang (Smith) zirej être jaloux de 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) səlek jealousy jalousie 9.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) solo jalousie 9.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) səlak jalousie 9.5) Merey (Gravina) səlak jealous jaloux, jalousie 9.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) səlek araj (be) jealous (être) jaloux 9.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) sə́léŋ jalousie 9.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) səleŋ jalousie, envie, jaloux (Gudur)

10Proto-Maroua *sɨlan ʷ jealousy jaloux 10.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sulon (be) jealous (être) jaloux

11Proto-Higi *sɨlkɨ jealousy jaloux 11.1) Kirya (Blench) sə̀lkə́ to be envious, jealous
sɨrɨkʷ n. broom balai (5 groups, 13 languages) A syn: kɨɬɨɗ, sɨmɨt ʸ.
This root is found primarily in the Mofu group. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though Vulum has /r/. The labialisation from *kʷ has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody in three groups and as a vowel in Giziga Marva. These are common sporadic processes. The change *k→h in Gidar is unestablished.

1Proto-Hurza *sɨrak ʷ broom balai 1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) sərok broom balaie

2Proto-Mofu *sɨlakʷ broom balai 2.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sə̄lākʷ broom balai 2.2) Mada (Nkoumou) səlakʷ balai 2.3) Moloko (Friesen) səlewk broom balai 2.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) səlewk 2.4) Zulgo (Haller) súlúkʷ balai m. 2.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) sulok broom balai 2.6) Merey (Gravina) sulok broom balai 2.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) səleuk broom balai 2.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) sə́lākʷ balai 2.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) salákʷ type d'herbe 2.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) salákʷ balai, balayette

3Proto-Maroua *sulek broom balai 3.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sulek broom balai

4Proto-Musgum *sɨrɨk ʷ broom balai 4.1) Vulum (Tourneux) suruk balai

5Proto-Gidar *sɨlha ʷ broom balai 5.1) Gidar (Schuh) səlho, o balai 5.2) Gidar (Hungerford) sulhõ balai

6Kanuri fəratə́ram /// sùⁿdòk broom balai
sɨwiɓ ʸ v. to suck sucer (15 groups, 35 languages) A
This well-attested root has a complex history. *w has been lost in many cases. Where it is present, it has been reanalysed as a vowel, or else as the labialisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process. This process has led to the loss of a syllable, and in several languages the first syllable of the root has been reduplicated to compensate for the lost material, which is also a common sporadic process. In the Kotoko groups, the *ɓ has transferred its glottal component to the *s, resulting in *ts or *sʼ. There is good evidence in support of the palatalisation prosody, and *i is found in those groups where it is expected.

1Proto-Bata *siɓ ʸ suck sucer 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ʃiɓə suck (on candy or food, not to nurse) 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) ʃəɓ sucer

2Proto-Daba *saɓ ʸ suck sucer 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) seseɓ suck sucer 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ʃeɓ suck sucer 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) səseɓ suck sucer 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) sēɓ sucer

3Proto-Mafa *sasɨɓ ʷ suck sucer 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) sosuɓ- sucer 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) sasɓa suck sucer

4Proto-Hurza *susaɓ ʸ suck sucer 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) susœɓ to suck succer

5Proto-Margi *siɓɨ ʸ suck sucer 5.1) Kilba (Schuh) ʃiɓa/ə suck

6Proto-Mandara *ɓusa ʸ suck sucer 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ɓɨʃé sucer 6.2) Dghwede (Frick) pʼutsa suck

7Proto-Mofu *sɨwɨɓ suck sucer 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sə̄ɓāj suck sucer 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) soɓ suck sucer 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) sàsuɓá sucer dans la bouche 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) suɓ suck sucer 7.5) Merey (Gravina) susuɓ suck sucer 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) məsoɓej suck sucer 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) mésèsə̀ɓèj sucer 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sásəɓ sucer 7.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) sásəɓ souffrir de la maladie

8Proto-Maroua *suɓi suck sucer 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) suɓa goɗ suck sucer 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) susuɓi sucer 8.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) súsúbíʼ suck sucer

9Proto-Lamang *ɓisaj suck sucer 9.1) Hdi (Bramlett) ɓisaj to suck sucer

10Proto-Higi *ɓisɨ, sʲiɓɨ suck sucer 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ɓísí suck 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɓisiuwo suckle (baby); nurse; suck the breast 10.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ɓisi suck 10.3) Psikye (Angelo) mɓisə suck 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) ɓə́sə́ extraire beaucoup de liquide, presser, filter, sucer 10.4.1) Bana (Lienhard) ɓ(ə́)sə́ extraire un liquide, presser, filter, sucer 10.4.2) Bana (Lienhard) ʃíɓə́ sucer 10.4.3) Bana (Lienhard) ʃìʃə̀ɓə́ sucer

11Proto-Kotoko Island *tsetsabu suck sucer 11.1) Buduma (McKone) tʃetʃabu sucer.

12Proto-Kotoko North *sʼafu suck sucer 12.1) Afade (Allison) sʼufu; sʼefel wa suck sucer 12.2) Mpade (Allison) sʼàfú suck sucer 12.2.1) Mpade (Allison) sʼàfɨ́ gà suck sucer 12.3) Malgbe (Allison) sʼafɨ suck sucer

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *sʼafɨ suck sucer 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) sʼɨfuwun suck sucer 13.2) Mser (Allison) sʼafɨ; nsʼafɨ suck sucer

14Proto-Musgum *susuɓɨ ʸ suck sucer 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) sʉsʉɓi sucer

15Proto-Gidar *ɨssɨɓa ʷ suck sucer 15.1) Gidar (Schuh) əssuɓo sucer 15.2) Gidar (Hungerford) ɨ ssubo sucer
sɨwra₂ v. to fry frire (15 groups, 35 languages) A cf: d, tɨsaw.
This is one of two very common cooking verbs, with the other being the generic *d. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch and in Cuvok. This change should also have affected the Daba group, but this is not the case here. There was a regular change *s→z in Proto-West Tera. *w has been lost in many groups, and reanalysed as a vowel in some other groups, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *sɨrɨ fry frire 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sərə roast over open fire 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) sərə fry (dry or with oil)

2Proto-Daba *sar fry frire 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) msɑr fry frire 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) msɑr fry frire 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) məsar fry frire

3Proto-Mafa *sara fry frire 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) sala fry frire 3.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) sala cook (v) (faire) cuire, cuisiner

4Proto-Tera *zur fry frire 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) zur fry

5Proto-Sukur *sɨwra fry frire 5.1) Sukur (David) sura cook, to 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) sura fry; to cook something in hot fat or oil; to be burn by the sun.

6Proto-Hurza *sɨwla fry frire 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) suwle to fry frire 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) sə́lā fry frire

7Proto-Margi *sula fry frire 7.1) Bura (Blench) sulta To fry 7.1.1) Bura (Blench) sula To fry 7.2) Margi (Hoffman) səl to fry 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) səla// fry

8Proto-Mandara *sula fry frire 8.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) sulá griller, rôtir (dans un récipient) 8.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) séla frire 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) səla fry 8.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) sɨ́lga fry

9Proto-Mofu *sawla fry frire 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sə̄lāj cook (in oil) ; fry cuire (dans l'huile) ; frire 9.2) Muyang (Smith) sɑwɑlɑj fry frire 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) moeʃloeere frire 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) sol cook on fire 9.4.1) Moloko (Friesen) sol frier 9.4.2) Moloko (Friesen) sol poêler 9.4.3) Moloko (Friesen) sol griller 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) sawla roast rôtir 9.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mesewle fry frire 9.6) Merey (Gravina) sola fry frire 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məsulejna fry frire 9.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) səl (faire) griller dans un récipient 9.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) səl frire 9.8.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́sər faire cuire (oeuf, lait)

10Proto-Maroua *sula fry frire 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) susul sécher, rotir, griller, frire lentement jusqu'à devenir sec 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) sula fry frire

11Proto-Lamang *sula fry frire 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) sula roast, fry 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) sulaj to fry, to roast frire, rôtir

12Proto-Higi *sɨlɨ fry frire 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) selə fry 12.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) sə́lə́ Fry 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) siro fry 12.3) Kirya (Blench) sə̀l to fry 12.4) Bana (Lienhard) s(ə́)lí frire (dans un casserole ou recipient, avec our sans un peu d'huile)

13Proto-Kotoko North *sɨl fry frire 13.1) Mpade (Allison) sɨ́ljà ho fry frire

14Proto-Kotoko South *tsihʲa fry frire 14.1) Zina (Odden) tʃìhjà fry frire

15Proto-Musgum *sisal fry frire 15.1) Mbara (Tourneux) sisal roast rôtir 15.1.1) Mbara (Tourneux) sisal fry
sɨwra₁ num. two deux (7 groups, 12 languages) A syn: ɓɨwak, tsɨjɨw, kasi.
This root is not well-attested in Central Chadic, but evidence from other branches indicates that this was probably the Proto-Chadic root. *w has been reanalysed as a vowel or the labialisation prosody, or has been lost. These are common sporadic processes. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though *r is present in Proto-Mandara, and /d/ is present in Bura.

1Proto-Daba *sɨraj two deux 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) sə́rāj deux

2Proto-Tera *sɨrri two deux 2.1) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) sǝrri two

3Proto-Margi *suda two deux 3.1) Bura (Blench) suda Two

4Proto-Mandara *sɨra two deux 4.1) Matal (Branger) sᵊ̄là two deux 4.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) sərá,-a deux

5Proto-Mofu *sɨwla two deux 5.1) Mada (Nkoumou) səlá deux 5.2) Zulgo (Haller) súla deux 5.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) sulo two deux 5.4) Merey (Gravina) sulo two (2) deux (2) 5.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) səla two (2) deux (2)

6Proto-Musgum *sɨlɨ ʷ two deux 6.1) Vulum (Tourneux) sulu deux

7Proto-Gidar *sɨwla two deux 7.1) Gidar (Hungerford) sula deux 7.2) Gidar (Schuh) suula, a deux 7.3) Gidar (Hungerford) sula deux