t


takʷ n. horse cheval (5 groups, 10 languages) B syn: pɨrɨs ʸ, bɨskʷan.
This is one of three main roots for 'horse' in Central Chadic. There is an irregular change *t→d in Proto-Daba and Sukur, and the sporadic change *kʷ→hʷ in Proto-Bata.

1Proto-Bata *tɨhʷɨ horse cheval 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) tə̀hʷá -ə horse

2Proto-Daba *dakʷ horse cheval 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) dɑkʷ horse cheval 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) dɑkʷ horse cheval 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) dok horse cheval

3Proto-Sukur *dɨkʷ horse cheval 3.1) Sukur (David) duk horse 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) dəkʼu horse:- is a large domestic animals mostly used for king.

4Proto-Margi *takʷ horse cheval 4.1) Bura (Blench) taku Horse 4.2) Margi (Hoffman) tagu horse 4.3) Margi South (Harley) tagu horse 4.4) Kilba (Schuh) taku horse

5Proto-Higi *tɨkʷ horse cheval 5.1) Kirya (Blench) tə̀kú horse
taɬ v. to be cold être froid (8 groups, 12 languages) A cf: hɨmɨɗ ʸ.
This word probably had a verbal sense 'to be cold', which gave rise to nominal forms, many of which are cited here. The root *hɨmɨɗ ʸ 'wind' is also used for the concept 'cold' in many languages. *ɬ should have the reflex *ɮ in Proto-Mafa, but *ɬ is found.

1Proto-Mafa *mɨtaɬ cold froid 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) mə́táɬ froid 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) mataɬa (be) cold (objects) (être) froid

2Proto-Margi *mɨtaɬ cold froid 2.1) Bura (Blench) mtaɬi To cool; become cold 2.1.1) Bura (Blench) mtaɬaku Cold; cool

3Proto-Mandara *mɨtaɬɨ cold froid 3.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) mətaɬa,-ə froid 3.2) Dghwede (Frick) ⁿdaɬa cold

4Proto-Mofu *taɬ cold froid 4.1) Moloko (Friesen) ⁿdaɬaj make cold faire froid 4.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) mətaɬ cold froid 4.3) Merey (Gravina) taɬa (be) cold (objects) (être) froid 4.3.1) Merey (Gravina) mətaɬ froid

5Proto-Maroua *muteɬaŋ cold froid 5.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) muteɬaŋ (be) cold (objects) (être) froid

6Proto-Lamang *mɨtaɬ cold froid 6.1) Hdi (Bramlett) mətaɬ cold le froid

7Proto-Higi *taɬi cold froid 7.1) Bana (Lienhard) tàɬí froid (temps)

8Proto-Kotoko Centre *taɬɨ cold froid 8.1) Lagwan (Allison) taɬɨ (be) cold (objects) (être) froid
tasɨraɗ num. seven sept (3 groups, 12 languages) A syn: mɨɗɨp.
This root is less well-attested than *mɨɗɨfɨn. It is found on or around the Mandara Mountains. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, of which the Mofu group is part, and in Cuvok. The same change took place in the Daba group, but that is not evident in the limited data here. The final *ɗ has been lost in the Mofu group, which is a common sporadic change.

1Proto-Daba *tsasaraɗ ʸ seven sept 1.1) Daba (Lienhard) tʃèsèrēɗ sept

2Proto-Mafa *tsaraɗ seven sept 2.1) Mafa (Barreteau) tsaraɗ sept 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) tasla seven sept (7)

3Proto-Mofu *tasɨla seven sept 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) sə̀sə̀là seven sept 3.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑdəskəlɑ seven sept 3.3) Moloko (Friesen) səsəre seven sept 3.4) Zulgo (Haller) təsəlá sept 3.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) təsəla seven sept 3.6) Merey (Gravina) tasəla seven (7) sept (7) 3.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) tsəla seven (7) sept (7) 3.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) tsə́lā sept (num.) 3.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) maasala seven sept
tip v. to spit cracher (14 groups, 31 languages) A
This common root is almost certainly onomatopoeic in origin. A similar word is found in both Hausa and Kanuri. It is significant though that *i is present in almost all the groups where this vowel is part of the phonemic inventory. This implies that the word may have been adopted as a word rather than as a sound at an early period in the history of Central Chadic. *p was realised as [f] word-finally in Proto-Central Chadic, so the presence of the final *f in all groups does not contradict the early origin of the word.

1Proto-Bata *tif spit cracher 1.1) Bata (Boyd) tə̀f I spit saliva 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) tifi spit. 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) tefʷən 1 - Cracher ;; 2 - Depiècer un animal; 3 - Cinquième

2Proto-Daba *tɨf ʸ spit cracher 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtef spit cracher 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtif spit cracher 2.3) Daba (Lienhard) tīf cracher ; bénir

3Proto-Mafa *ⁿdzɨf ʸ spit cracher 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ⁿdʒif cracher

4Proto-Sukur *tifa spit cracher 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) tifa to spit on somebody or something

5Proto-Hurza *tifa spit cracher 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) təfe spit cracher 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) tífā spit cracher

6Proto-Margi *tifa spit cracher 6.1) Bura (Blench) tifu, tifa To spit 6.2) Kilba (Schuh) təfa/a spit

7Proto-Mandara *tifa spit cracher 7.1) Matal (Branger) mæ̀tʲflá spit cracher 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) təfa cracher

8Proto-Mofu *tɨf spit cracher 8.1) Moloko (Friesen) taf spit cracher 8.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) metefe teɮe spit cracher 8.3) Merey (Gravina) təf cracher 8.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətəfej ɬeɬeɓ spit cracher 8.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) métə̀fèj cracher 8.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́təf cracher

9Proto-Maroua *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 9.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) tuf cracher

10Proto-Lamang *tɨf spit cracher 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) təf spit 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) təfaj to spit cracher

11Proto-Higi *tifi spit cracher 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ntìví spit 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ntjivi spit 11.3) Kirya (Blench) ntə́fə́ to spit 11.4) Bana (Lienhard) tfə́ cracher, bénir

12Proto-Kotoko North *tafɨ spit cracher 12.1) Mpade (Allison) táfɨ̀ sʼè spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *tɨf spit cracher 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfɨwun (tɨfu) spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche 13.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) tɨfel nahe spit cracher 13.2) Mser (Allison) tafɨ ɣrej spit cracher

14Proto-Musgum *tɨf ʷ spit cracher 14.1) Mbara (Tourneux) tuf spit cracher

15Hausa tóofèe spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche

16Kanuri tәfáᵑgin, tәfádʒin // tә́fáᵑgin, tә́fádʒin spit sth out of the mouth cracher qqch de la bouche
tira nm. moon lune (10 groups, 31 languages) A syn: kɨja.
This root is the original Proto-Central Chadic root, and goes back at least as far as Proto-Chadic. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though here Proto-Higi has *r, and Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Kotoko Centre have *ɗ. It is expected that Sukur has /r/, but this is not the case. Evidence for *i comes from the three groups where *i exists as a phoneme, i.e. the Mandara, Lamang and Higi groups. In Glavda, *i has been reanalysed as the palatalisation of *t. There is a regular process in Glavda where palatalised alveolar consonants become palatalised velar consonants, and this explains the presence of /kʲ/. The change *t→k in Muskum is regular.

1Proto-Daba *tɨra moon lune 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtərɑ moon lune 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtərɑ month mois 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtrɑ moon lune 1.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtrɑ month 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ntəra month mois 1.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ntra moon lune 1.4) Daba (Lienhard) tə̀rà la lune, le mois 1.5) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) təra lune

2Proto-Tera *tera moon lune 2.1) Tera (Newman) tera moon 2.1.1) Tera (Newman) tera month 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) tʃere month 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) tʃera moon 2.3) Hwana (Harley) ⁿdɾé moon/month

3Proto-Sukur *tja moon lune 3.1) Sukur (David) teja moon, month (lunar) 3.2) Sukur (David) teja month (lunar), moon 3.3) Sukur (Thomas) tja moon; the round object that moves around the earth once 271/2 days and shines at night by light reflect fron the sun.

4Proto-Mandara *tila moon lune 4.1) Matal (Branger) təla moon lune 4.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) tərá,-a 1 lune 4.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) tərá,-a 2 mois 4.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) téré lune (f), mois (m) 4.4) Malgwa (Löhr) təre moon 4.4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) təre month 4.5) Glavda (Owens) kjí moon 4.5.1) Glavda (Owens) kji month, moon 4.5.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kʲla month 4.5.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) kʲla moon 4.6) Dghwede (Frick) tile moon

5Proto-Lamang *tila moon lune 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) tə́ré moon 5.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) tré moon 5.1.2) Lamang (Wolff) tə́r moon, month 5.2) Hdi (Bramlett) tili moon la lune

6Proto-Higi *tɨri moon lune 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) tərə̊ moon 6.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) təro month 6.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) təro moon 6.2.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) təro full moon 6.3) Kirya (Blench) tə́ɽí moon, month 6.4) Psikye (Angelo) trə́ moon 6.5) Bana (Lienhard) tír lune, mois

7Proto-Kotoko North *teɗɨ moon lune 7.1) Afade (Allison) deɗi moon lune 7.2) Mpade (Allison) téɗɨ moon lune 7.2.1) Mpade (Allison) téɗɨ month mois 7.3) Malgbe (Allison) teɗɨ moon lune 7.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) teɗɨ month mois

8Proto-Kotoko Centre *teɗɨ moon lune 8.1) Lagwan (Allison) teɗi moon lune 8.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) teɗi month mois 8.2) Mser (Allison) teɗɨ (tɨɗ) moon lune 8.2.1) Mser (Allison) teɗɨ month mois

9Proto-Musgum *tɨla ʸ moon lune 9.1) Vulum (Tourneux) tle lune 9.2) Mbara (Tourneux) tile moon lune 9.3) Muskum (Tourneux) kile lune

10Proto-Gidar *tɨla moon lune 10.1) Gidar (Hungerford) tɨla lune, mois 10.2) Gidar (Schuh) təla/a lune 10.3) Gidar (Hungerford) tɨla lune, mois
tɨɣis num. eight eight (4 groups, 11 languages) B
It is unlikely that Proto-Central Chadic had a root for 'eight', This is the most widely attested root, and it is only present in four groups. These groups are not genetically related at a close level, so the root may be a comparatively recent coinage that has spread.

1Proto-Bata *tɨɣis eight huit 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) tə̀ɣə́sə eight 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) təɣis Huit 1.2.1) Jimi (Djibi) təɣis 8

2Proto-Sukur *tɨkɨz eight huit 2.1) Sukur (David) təkəz eight

3Proto-Mandara *tɨɣis eight huit 3.1) Matal (Branger) mtəgis, mtəgiʃ eight huit 3.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) tíse huit 3.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) tx̩̀sa eight (8)

4Proto-Higi *tɨɣɨsɨ eight huit 4.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) tə̀kə̀sé Eight 4.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) dəɣoso eight 4.3) Kirya (Blench) tə́ɣə̀s eight 4.4) Psikye (Angelo) dəgəsə́ eight 4.5) Bana (Lienhard) d(ə)ɣə̀sə̀ huit
tɨma nm. sheep mouton (11 groups, 34 languages) B
Sheep farming probably did not take place amongst the Proto-Central Chadic speaking people. The word entered Central Chadic at a later point. Many languages have either /-ŋ/ or /-k/ suffixed to the root. These could be historic gender suffixes which have become fossilised. The change *m→w took place in the Mandara group as a regular change in word-final position, but it is not expected in intervocalic position. In the Lamang group *m
→w was a sporadic change. In several languages there has been a sporadic change *m→ᵐb. The /ɓ/ found in Proto-Tera and in the Mofu languages is probably a development *ᵐb→ɓ. In Mandara and Malgwa the *i has palatalised the *t. There is a regular process whereby palatalised alveolars become palatalised velars in these languages, giving /kʲ/ in these languages.

1Proto-Daba *tɨmɨk sheep mouton 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋtəmek sheep mouton 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋtʃimek sheep mouton 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) ntek sheep mouton 1.4) Daba (Lienhard) tùmùk le mouton

2Proto-Mafa *tamak sheep mouton 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) taᵐbak sheep mouton 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) təmak ewe brebis 2.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) təmak sheep mouton

3Proto-Tera *ⁿdɨɓaŋ sheep mouton 3.1) Tera (Newman) ⁿdəɓaŋ sheep 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ⁿdu̱ɓaᵑg sheep

4Proto-Hurza *tɨma sheep mouton 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) təman sheep brebis 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) tə̄ᵐbák sheep mouton

5Proto-Mandara *tiwa sheep mouton 5.1) Matal (Branger) tᵘ̄wāŋ sheep mouton 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) tagʷá,-i mouton 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) kjáwe mouton (m) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) kjewe sheep gen. 5.5) Glavda (Owens) tuu sheep 5.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) tùʁʷa sheep 5.6) Dghwede (Frick) tuwige sheep

6Proto-Mofu *tɨma sheep mouton 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) tə̄ᵐbàk sheep mouton 6.2) Moloko (Friesen) təmak sheep mouton 6.3) Gemzek (Sabatai) təmaŋ sheep mouton 6.4) Merey (Gravina) təɓaŋ sheep mouton 6.4.1) Merey (Gravina) təbaŋ mouton 6.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) Təmak sheep mouton 6.5.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) Təmak ewe brebis 6.6) Mofu North (Barreteau) tə̄ɓāŋ mouton 6.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təɓáŋ mouton 6.7.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təɓáŋ (fig.) sot, bête

7Proto-Maroua *tɨma sheep mouton 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tumon ewe brebis 7.1.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tumon sheep mouton 7.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) təmak mouton

8Proto-Lamang *tɨwak sheep mouton 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) tuwaka sheep 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) tuwak sheep le mouton

9Proto-Higi *tɨmɨ sheep mouton 9.1) Kirya (Blench) tə̀ᵐbə́kə́ sheep 9.2) Psikye (Angelo) tə́mu sheep 9.3) Bana (Lienhard) tə́ᵐbə̀k(ə́) mouton, brebis,

10Proto-Musgum *tɨma sheep mouton 10.1) Vulum (Tourneux) adme mouton 10.2) Mbara (Tourneux) dima sheep 10.3) Muskum (Tourneux) tɨma mouton

11Proto-Gidar *tɨma ʸ sheep mouton 11.1) Gidar (Schuh) time/e mouton
tɨsaw v. to roast rôtir (5 groups, 10 languages) A cf: d, sɨwra.
The basic meaning of this word is to cook food in a fire. It contrasts with *sɨwra 'to fry'. *d is a generic term for cooking. The *w has resulting in the creation of the vowel /u/ in Muyang, Gemzek and Giziga Marva, creating exceptions to the general rule of vowel harmony.

1Proto-Bata *ɨtsa cook préparer 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ətsa burn up 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ətsa roast over open fire

2Proto-Margi *tasa cook cuire 2.1) Kilba (Schuh) tas/a roast

3Proto-Mofu *tɨsaw cook cuire 3.1) Muyang (Smith) tusɑj smoke over a fire, roast without flame cuire au feu; rôtir (sans flamme) 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) ⁿdusa bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 3.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ⁿdusa roast rôtir 3.3) Dugwor (Jubumna) mətəsew bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres) 3.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) təs faire sécher au feu (viande, boule de mil), faire cuire

4Proto-Maroua *tusa cook préparer 4.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) tusa gʷat bake (in ashes) cuire (dans les cendres)

5Proto-Higi *tswa cook préparer 5.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) tswå roast 5.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) tswa roast 5.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) tswa bake (in fire, e.g., bread) 5.3) Kirya (Blench) tswá to roast