z


z v. to smell bad sentir mauvais (5 groups, 16 languages) A
The root sense of this verb is 'to smell rotten'. The change *z→ⁿdz in Proto-Daba is irregular.

1Proto-Daba *ⁿdzɨ ʸ smell sentir 1.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ⁿdʒi smell (v) sentir 1.1.1) Gavar (Viljoen) ⁿdʒi stink, smell (bad) puer, sentir mauvais 1.2) Daba (Lienhard) ⁿdʒī sentir, répandre une odeur, puer

2Proto-Tera *zi smell sentir 2.1) Tera (Newman) ʒi smell 2.1.1) Tera (Newman) ʒi say 2.1.2) Tera (Newman) ʒi tell 2.1.3) Tera (Newman) ʒi answer 2.1.4) Tera (Newman) ʒi pour (in) 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ʒi stink, smell (bad) 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ʒi smell (v)

3Proto-Mandara *z ʸ smell sentir 3.1) Matal (Branger) màʒᶦnàj smell sentir mal

4Proto-Mofu *z smell sentir 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) smell sentir, odeur, désaccord 4.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) rotten pourrir 4.2) Muyang (Smith) zi rot, stink, give off a smell (good or bad), of fruit, meat, etc. pourrir, sentir (soit bon, soit mauvais) 4.2.1) Muyang (Smith) to smell something sentir quelque chose 4.3) Mada (Nkoumou) mezʒeŋa sentir 4.4) Moloko (Friesen) ze smell sentir 4.4.1) Moloko (Friesen) ze stink puer 4.5) Zulgo (Haller) sentir, exhaler une odeur 4.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) meze suwekeke stink, smell (bad) puer, sentir mauvais 4.7) Merey (Gravina) ze stink, smell (bad) puer, sentir mauvais 4.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) mazaj smell (v) sentir 4.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézéj sentir 4.9.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézéj pourri 4.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) z sentir, pourrir

5Proto-Lamang *zɨju smell sentir 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) zəju smell
zaj n. faeces selles (5 groups, 18 languages) A syn: ɣʷɨvi, ᵑgʷɨ.
This root is largely stable, except for the loss of *j in a few languages. It is found in the languages around the Northern Mandara mountains.

1Proto-Mafa *zaj faeces selles 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) zaj excrément 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) zaj urine urine

2Proto-Hurza *azaj faeces selles 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) azaj excrement selles 2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) àzàj excrement ; faeces excrément ; défécation ; déchet_d'un_être_humain_ou_d'un_animal

3Proto-Mandara *zaj faeces excrément 3.1) Matal (Branger) zaj faeces excrément

4Proto-Mofu *zaj faeces selles 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zàj excrement excrément 4.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑzɑj excrement, solid part left when liquid is removed excrément, partie solide qui reste quand un liquide a été enlevé 4.3) Mada (Nkoumou) za crotte, kaka, selles 4.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) aza excrement 4.4) Moloko (Friesen) azaj faeces (feces) excrément; selles 4.5) Zulgo (Haller) za excrément m. 4.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) za excrement excrément 4.7) Merey (Gravina) zaj excrement excrément 4.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) zaj excrement excrément 4.9) Mofu North (Barreteau) zāj éxcrément, selles, crotte, bouse 4.9.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) zāj d;-echet 4.10) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) záj excrément, selles, crotte, bouse 4.10.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) záj déchet

5Proto-Maroua *zaj faeces selles 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) zaj excrément, faute, déchet etc... résidu 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zaj excrement excrément 5.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) zaj excrément
ziᵑgʷa n. donkey âne (8 groups, 22 languages) B syn: koro, ᵐburi.
This is one of three common roots for 'donkey'. It is found in the languages of the Mandara Mountains. It is one of the few roots reconstructed with *ᵑgʷ.

1Proto-Daba *zaᵑga ʷ donkey âne 1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) zoŋɡo donkey âne

2Proto-Mafa *zaᵑgʷa donkey âne 2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) zaŋgʷa donkey âne

3Proto-Sukur *zɨᵑgʷa donkey âne 3.1) Sukur (David) zungʷa donkey 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) zəgʷa donkey; an animal of the horse family, with short legs and long ears people ride donkeys, or used them to carry heavy loads.

4Proto-Hurza *ziᵑgʷa donkey âne 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) zuᵑgo donkey âne 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) áʒìŋʷà donkey âne

5Proto-Mandara *ziᵑgʷa donkey âne 5.1) Matal (Branger) ʒaŋʷəw, ʒaŋəw, ʒaŋu, zeŋu, zeŋəw donkey âne 5.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʒəŋʷá,-a âne 5.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ézeŋʷa âne (m) 5.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əzuŋʷa donkey, ass 5.5) Glavda (Owens) aÿiŋ donkey 5.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àʝúŋʷa donkey 5.6) Dghwede (Frick) zuŋgʷe donkey

6Proto-Mofu *azɨᵑgʷa donkey âne 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ázìŋʷà donkey âne 6.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑzoŋɡu donkey âne 6.3) Moloko (Friesen) ozəᵑgo donkey, ass âne 6.4) Zulgo (Haller) hézwèŋè âne m. 6.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) zuᵑgo donkey âne 6.6) Merey (Gravina) zəᵑgaw donkey âne 6.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) zuᵑgo donkey âne 6.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) záᵑgáw "ane 6.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) zəŋgʷáw âne

7Proto-Maroua *zɨᵑgɨ ʷ donkey âne 7.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) zuᵑgu âne 7.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zuᵑgo donkey âne

8Proto-Lamang *zuŋa donkey âne 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) zuŋa donkey
zɨɗɨr ʸ nm. man, husband homme mâle, mari (6 groups, 21 languages) B cf: ⁿdɨw.
The basic sense of this root is a male human, and is extended to include the concept 'husband'. The change *z→s in Proto-Margi is regular. There was no *l in Proto-Central Chadic, but there was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch. All the languages where this root is found are from the North sub-branch, so the Proto-Central Chadic root is reconstructed with *r, even though /r/ is not present in the group-level reconstructions. *ɗ has been lost, or has been palatalised to become /j/, except in the Lamang group. These are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Margi *sal man homme 1.1) Margi (Hoffman) sal man, husband 1.2) Margi South (Harley) sal man 1.3) Kilba (Schuh) sal hero 1.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) sal husband, man, male 1.3.2) Kilba (Schuh) sal male, man

2Proto-Mandara *zal ʸ man homme 2.1) Matal (Branger) ʒɪ̄l man homme 2.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ʒele homme (m) 2.2.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) zala hommes (m. pl.) 2.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ʒiile husband, man

3Proto-Mofu *zal ʸ man homme 3.1) Muyang (Smith) zɑl man ; husband ; male homme; mari; mâle 3.2) Mada (Nkoumou) zala homme 3.3) Moloko (Friesen) zar man 3.3.1) Moloko (Friesen) zar mâle_humain 3.3.2) Moloko (Friesen) zar mari 3.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) zal husband mari, époux 3.5) Merey (Gravina) zal husband mari, époux 3.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) zel husband mari, époux 3.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) zel husband mari, mâle; homme capable de faire et de décider qqch.

4Proto-Maroua *zɨl ʸ man homme 4.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) miɮi les hommes, les gens, on 4.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zil man (male) homme (mâle) 4.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) zil homme 4.3.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) zil mari, homme 4.3.2) Mbazla (SILSurvey) zə̌l man (male) homme (mâle)

5Proto-Lamang *zɨɗal man homme 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) zɗàl husband, man 5.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) zɗàlà man 5.1.2) Lamang (Wolff) zə̀ɗàl man

6Proto-Higi *zal man homme 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) za man, husband 6.2) Kirya (Blench) zàl man 6.3) Psikye (Angelo) za man 6.4) Bana (Lienhard) zàl homme, mari, mâle
zɨgʷɨn n. child enfant (6 groups, 17 languages) C
This root is difficult to reconstruct. The initial *z is stable, though it metathesises with *gʷ in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Lamang, which is an unusual process for these consonants. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group, though this is not evident in Ouldeme. The final consonant has been lost in Proto-Higi, which is a common sporadic process. The *gʷ has the reflex /g/ in Jimi and Malgwa, and /w/ in Podoko, Proto-Maroua and Proto-Lamang. In many cases it is reanalysed as either /u/ or the labialisation prosody. These are common sporadic processes. The Kirya and Psikye forms are hard to analyse. It appears that the labialisation has separated from the /g/ component of *gʷ, but this process is not noted elsewhere in Central Chadic. There are several roots in other languages which look similar and may be cognate, e.g. Bura /bzər/ and Mbuko /wan/.

1Proto-Bata *zɨgɨn child enfant 1.1) Jimi (Djibi) zegən Enfant

2Proto-Mandara *gʷɨzɨr child enfant 2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) udzəra,-ə 1 enfant 2.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) udzəra,-ə 2 fruit 2.2) Malgwa (Löhr) əgza child 2.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) zɾa child 2.3.1) Glavda (Owens) child 2.4) Dghwede (Frick) vdʒire child

3Proto-Mofu *zazaŋ ʸ child enfant 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zèzéŋ baby bébé

4Proto-Maroua *zɨn ʷ child enfant 4.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) zuŋ, plr - ziri 1) enfant, petit enfant des deux sexes, 2) fille, fillette 4.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) ziri, ziraj, zir enfants 4.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zun child enfant 4.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ziŋ enfant 4.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) nzíl child enfant

5Proto-Lamang *wɨzaŋ child enfant 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) úzàŋà son, child, boy 5.2) Hdi (Bramlett) zwaŋ child l'enfant

6Proto-Higi *zɨgʷi child enfant 6.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) zəgʷi child 6.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) zəgʷi child 6.3) Kirya (Blench) zwə̀gà child 6.4) Psikye (Angelo) wuzəgə́ child 6.5) Bana (Lienhard) z(ə)ɣʷə̀ enfant
zɨjɨl n. lion lion (4 groups, 6 languages) B syn: lɨvari, mabor.
This is one of several roots for 'lion'. *l is reconstructed even though *l did not exist in Proto-Central Chadic. The word must be a comparatively recent coinage. *j has been reanalysed as /i/ in Mafa and as the palatalisation prosody in Gemzek and Zulgo. This is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Mafa *zala ʸ lion lion 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) marij-ʒélé lion

2Proto-Hurza *zɨjal ʸ lion lion 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) zijel lion lion

3Proto-Mofu *zal ʸ lion lion 3.1) Zulgo (Haller) azíl lion m. 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) zel lion lion 3.3) Merey (Gravina) zɨl lion lion

4Proto-Higi *zil lion lion 4.1) Bana (Lienhard) ʒìl lion
zɨm v. to eat manger (15 groups, 38 languages) B cf: hʷɨpɨɗ.
This is the generic verb for eating. There is a regular change *z→s in Proto-Margi, and separately in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (consisting of the Kotoko Island, Kotoko North and Musgum groups). There was a subsequent change *s→h in Kotoko Island. The Zina form is not the result of a regular change. There was also a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara. This change may also have taken place as a sporadic change in Proto-Lamang. There is weak evidence from Bata, Mbudum and Mbara for the existence of *w in the root, but it is not included until more evidence becomes available.

1Proto-Bata *zɨm eat manger 1.1) Bata (Boyd) sùm eat 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) zəmən Manger ;

2Proto-Daba *zɨm eat manger 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) zɑm eat manger 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) zəm eat manger 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) zəm conquer, defeat vaincre 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) zum eat manger

3Proto-Tera *zɨm eat manger 3.1) Tera (Newman) zəmi eat (e.g. cooked grain) 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) zu̱mi eat 3.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) zu̱m eat 3.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) sǝmⁿda to eat

4Proto-Margi *sim eat manger 4.1) Bura (Blench) sim To eat (general term) 4.2) Margi (Hoffman) səm to eat 4.3) Kilba (Schuh) səma// eat (food in general) 4.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) səma// be sharp (blade)

5Proto-Mandara *zɨwa eat manger 5.1) Matal (Branger) mazəwaj, mazuwaj eat manger 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) za manger 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) za eat 5.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) zᵊga eat 5.5) Dghwede (Frick) wuza to eat

6Proto-Mofu *zɨm eat manger 6.1) Mada (Nkoumou) mazma manger 6.2) Moloko (Friesen) zom eat foods like boule, not nuts or meat.; nouritture comme la boule, pas des noix ni de la viande 6.3) Zulgo (Haller) zə́m manger 6.3.1) Zulgo (Haller) zə́m être tranchant, e 6.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mezəme manger 6.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézə̀mèj manger (boule de mil) 6.5.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézə̀mèj se détruire (pour les grains) 6.5.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézə̀mèj être tranchant (couteau-rasoir) 6.5.3) Mofu North (Barreteau) mézə̀mèj hériter 6.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) zam manger 6.6.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm manger (boule de mil) 6.6.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm être tranchant (couteau, rasoir) 6.6.3) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm hériter 6.6.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm manger par sorcellerie ; faire un éclair (assimilé à un sorcier qui mange les gens) 6.6.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm ronger, bouffer, grignoter (souris, termites, etc.) 6.6.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm brûler (feu) 6.6.7) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zəm faire un bon marché (achat)

7Proto-Maroua *zuma, zimi eat manger 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) zuma goɗ eat manger 7.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʒimi manger 7.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) zìmíʼ eat manger

8Proto-Lamang *za eat manger 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) za eat 8.2) Hdi (Bramlett) zaj to eat manger

9Proto-Higi *zɨmɨ eat manger 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) zəmə 1.eat.2.twin 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) zimo eat 9.3) Psikye (Angelo) zəmə́ eat 9.4) Bana (Lienhard) zə̀mə̀ manger

10Proto-Kotoko Island *hɨm eat manger 10.1) Buduma (McKone) həm manger.

11Proto-Kotoko North *sɨm eat manger 11.1) Afade (Allison) sɨm; sɨmun eat manger 11.2) Mpade (Allison) sɨ̀m eat manger

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *zɨm eat manger 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) zɨmun a chew mâcher 12.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) zɨmwun (zɨmi, zɨm) eat manger 12.2) Mser (Allison) dʒim mate chew mâcher 12.2.1) Mser (Allison) dʒim eat manger

13Proto-Kotoko South *hʷɨma eat manger 13.1) Zina (Odden) hùmà + afá chew mâcher

14Proto-Musgum *simi, zum eat manger 14.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) simi manger 14.2) Mbara (Tourneux) zum eat manger

15Proto-Gidar *ɨzɨma eat manger 15.1) Gidar (Hungerford) wəzəma manger 15.2) Gidar (Schuh) əzəma manger (général)
zɨᵐbʷiɗ nm. navel nombril (8 groups, 23 languages) B
This root is attested in a wide distribution of languages. In most respects, this root behaves in a regular fashion. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko North are regular. *ɗ is lost in many cases (a common sporadic process), and has the regular reflex *r in part of the Higi group. A similar change, followed by an irregular change *r→l would account for the forms in Mafa, Ouldeme and Muyang. The difficulty lies in accounting for the presence of back vowels and labialisation in the Bata, Margi, Higi and Kotoko North groups, since there were no labialised labial phonemes in Proto-Central Chadic. The phoneme *ᵐbʷ was created in the Bata, Margi and Higi groups by the reanalysis of *w as labialisation, or the transfer of the labialisation component from a labialised velar. It is possible that this root is a compound such as *zɨᵐbɨ-hʷiɗ, with *hʷiɗ being the Proto-Central Chadic root for 'belly' and *zɨᵐbɨ being a root of unknown meaning. This would also account for the variation between the presence of the palatalisation prosody and *i in the group-level reconstructions.

1Proto-Bata *zɨᵐbʷɨɗɨ ʸ navel nombril 1.1) Bata (Boyd) sùᵐbuɗe navel 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) ʒəmbʷəɗən Nombil 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) zɨᵐbuɗə nombril

2Proto-Mafa *zɨmal ʸ navel nombril 2.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) zɨmel nombril

3Proto-Margi *sɨᵐbʷɨɗɨw ʸ navel nombril 3.1) Margi South (Harley) ʃəᵐbuɗu navel 3.2) Kilba (Schuh) ʃiᵐbuɗu navel

4Proto-Mandara *zɨᵐbɨ ʸ navel nombril 4.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʒɨᵐba,-ə nombril 4.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) ʒaᵐba nombril (m) 4.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ʒaᵐba navel 4.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʒàm͡ba navel 4.5) Dghwede (Frick) ʒiᵐbe navel

5Proto-Mofu *zɨᵐbal ʸ navel nombril 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) zìᵐbèl navel nombril 5.2) Muyang (Smith) zìᵐbèl navel nombril 5.2.1) Muyang (Smith) mezimezim navel nombril

6Proto-Lamang *ziᵐbiɗ navel nombril 6.1) Lamang (Wolff) zaᵐbə navel 6.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ziᵐbiɗ naval le nombril

7Proto-Higi *zʲɨᵐbʷiɗ navel nombril 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ʒìmbʷí Navel 7.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ʒembʷi navel 7.3) Kirya (Blench) ʒìᵐbúr navel 7.4) Bana (Lienhard) ʒìᵐbér nombril

8Proto-Kotoko North *saᵐbu navel nombril 8.1) Afade (Allison) tsɨmtsɨm navel nombril 8.2) Mpade (Allison) sàᵐbù belly button nombril 8.2.1) Mpade (Allison) sɨ́msɨ̀m navel nombril 8.3) Malgbe (Allison) sɨmsɨm navel nombril 8.4) Maltam (Allison) sɨmsɨm navel nombril
zɨrwa ʸ n. shame honte (6 groups, 10 languages) B syn: hʷaraj.
This is one of two widespread roots for 'shame'. It is found primarily in languages of the North sub-branch. The changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and Proto-Musgum are regular, but the Sukur /s/ is not. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, so *l is expected, except in Sukur, which is part of the South sub-branch. The data does not match this expectation. The root may therefore have entered the North sub-branch after this change took place, but at a time when *r had re-entered the phonemic inventory, and before the later *r→l change in Proto-Margi. The Sukur word must be a borrowing from the Margi group.

1Proto-Sukur *sɨlɨj shame honte 1.1) Sukur (Thomas) sələi shy;- shame

2Proto-Margi *sili shame honte 2.1) Bura (Blench) sili Shame, embarrassment sili ali I am ashamed sili akwa nci I am ashamed hara sili aka To shame kili silir mda To humiliate vu mda alwa sili To put to shame

3Proto-Mandara *zɨrɨwɨ ʸ shame honte 3.1) Matal (Branger) ʒɪ̀rʉ̀wì shame honte 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 1 honte 3.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ʒɨ́rəwa,-ə 2 respect 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) ʒéréwé autruche (f) - honte (f), respect (f) 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ʒirwe shame 3.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ʒìrwa shame (n) 3.5.1) Glavda (Owens) žir ostrich, shame, shyness

4Proto-Mofu *zɨrwɨ ʸ shame honte 4.1) Muyang (Smith) zirwi shame ; respect ; benefit honte, respect, bienfait 4.1.1) Muyang (Smith) zirwi honte, respect, bienfait

5Proto-Lamang *zɨru shame honte 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) zə́rù feeling of shame

6Proto-Musgum *sɨjar ʸ shame honte 6.1) Vulum (Tourneux) sijer honte
zɨwɨɗ ʸ n. string corde (12 groups, 30 languages) A
The basic meaning of this root is string or rope made from the bark of a sapling or another natural substance. There were regular changes *z→s in Proto-Margi and in the North Kotoko-Musgum major group (here, the Kotoko North group). The same change took place in Proto-Kotoko Centre but this was irregular here. The *ɗ has been lost in several languages, or been realised as /j/ due to palatalisation. In other languages it has merged with *w, forming *ʔʷ in Proto-Bata, Proto-Lamang and Proto-Higi, and /ɓ/ in Sukur. These are all common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *zaʔʷɨ string fil 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) zàʼwá -ə rope 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) zəʼə Corde

2Proto-Tera *zoo string fil 2.1) Tera (Newman) zo rope 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) zoo rope 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) zoo string (n)

3Proto-Sukur *zɨɓɨ ʸ string corde 3.1) Sukur (David) ʒiɓi string 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ʒiɓi rope: very srong thick string made by twisting thinnerstrings together.

4Proto-Hurza *zawaj string fil 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) zawaj thread from a tree, used for repairing calabashes fil (m) d'un arbre, pour réparer des calebasses 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ázə̀wáj rope ; string ?? simple fil en coton ou encore avec quelques plantes.

5Proto-Margi *sɨwiɗ string fil 5.1) Bura (Blench) suwa Rope 5.1.1) Bura (Blench) sua Rope 5.2) Kilba (Schuh) siʼi rope

6Proto-Mandara *zawaɗ string fil 6.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) zawa corde (f) 6.2) Malgwa (Löhr) zawa rope 6.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) zàwa rope 6.3.1) Glavda (Owens) zaw rope 6.4) Dghwede (Frick) zapʼa rope

7Proto-Mofu *zɨwaɗ ʸ string fil 7.1) Moloko (Friesen) ezeweɗ rope corde 7.2) Merey (Gravina) zuweɗ string (n) ficelle 7.2.1) Merey (Gravina) zuweɗ wire fil, ligne de pêche 7.3) Dugwor (Jubumna) azewed rope; wire; string (n) corde; fil; ficelle 7.4) Mofu North (Barreteau) zə́wèɗ corde en fibre végétale machée, ficelle 7.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́zewéɗ fil en fibre végétale mâchée, ficelle

8Proto-Maroua *zɨwɨɗ ʸ string fil 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) azeweɗ rope corde 8.1.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) azeweɗ string (n) ficelle 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʒiwiŋ corde 8.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ̌zwíwiŋ rope corde

9Proto-Lamang *zɨʔʷi string fil 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) zə̀wì rope 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) zuʼi thread le fil

10Proto-Higi *ziʔʷɨ string fil 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) zəwə rope 10.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) zə̀wə́ Rope 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ziwə thread 10.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ziwe rope 10.3) Kirya (Blench) zə́w rope 10.4) Psikye (Angelo) zəwə́ rope 10.5) Bana (Lienhard) zə̀ʼwə̀ corde

11Proto-Kotoko North *sɨre string fil 11.1) Mpade (Allison) sàrè thread (n) fil 11.2) Malgbe (Allison) se string (n) ficelle 11.2.1) Malgbe (Allison) jire thread (n) fil

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *saɗɨ string fil 12.1) Mser (Allison) saɗɨ wire fil 12.1.1) Mser (Allison) saɗe string (n) ficelle 12.1.2) Mser (Allison) saɗɨ thread (n) fil