hɨpaɬ ʸ nf. shoulder épaule (8 groups, 19 languages) B rel. to: paɮa.
This root is probably related to the root *paɮa 'upper arm', though the lack of regularity in the reflexes of the lateral fricatives in the two roots indicates that these should not be considered as a single root, but as two related forms deriving from one root. The initial *h is lost in many languages, and this loss has triggered compensatory reduplication in many cases. There is evidence for the palatalisation prosody from almost all groups. There was metathesis of *p and *ɬ in the Mandara group, a sporadic process.

1Proto-Mafa *paɬpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) peɬpeɬ epaule

2Proto-Sukur *tapaɬ shoulder épaule 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) tapaɬ shoulder; either of the two parts of the body between the top of each arm and the neck.

3Proto-Hurza *paɬpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 3.1) Vame (Kinnaird) péɬpēɬ shoulder épaule

4Proto-Margi *apaɬa shoulder épaule 4.1) Bura (Blench) páɬáhà Shoulder Also pátláhù 4.2) Margi South (Harley) papaɮa shoulder 4.3) Kilba (Schuh) paɬəka shoulder

5Proto-Mandara *aɬapɨ ʸ shoulder épaule 5.1) Matal (Branger) dzàbàɬa᷆ shoulder épaule 5.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) náhjápéhjápé épaule (f) 5.3) Malgwa (Löhr) nahjepe shoulder 5.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) lahjepe shoulder 5.4) Glavda (Owens) açá shoulder 5.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) āçápa shoulder

6Proto-Mofu *hɨpaɬ ʸ shoulder épaule 6.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mə̄pépéɬ shoulder épaule 6.2) Muyang (Smith) həpɑɬ both the shoulders, the part of the body that can be moved les épaules (qu'on peut hausser) 6.3) Mada (Nkoumou) ahpaɬ epaule 6.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pepéɬ omoplate, épaule

7Proto-Maroua *papaɮ ʸ shoulder épaule 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) pepeɮ shoulder épaule

8Proto-Higi *baɮa shoulder épaule 8.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) báɮa shoulder 8.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ᵐbaɮa shoulder 8.3) Kirya (Blench) bàbàɮà shoulder 8.4) Bana (Lienhard) báɮí épaule

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