Foreword

Classification

The classification used here results from the identification of regular changes in the consonantal phonemes amongst groups of Central Chadic languages. Full evidence is given in the dissertation. The summary classification is as follows (dialects are in parentheses; languages not cited in the data are in italics):

Bata group: Bachama, Bata, Fali, Gude, Gudu, Holma, Jimi, Ngwaba, Nzanyi, Sharwa, Tsuvan, Zizilivakan

Daba group: Buwal, Daba, Gavar, Mazagway, Mbudum, Mina

Mafa group: Cuvok, Mafa, Mefele

Tera group: Boga, Ga’anda, Hwana, Jara, Tera (Nyimatli)

Sukur group: Sukur

Hurza group: Mbuko, Vame

Margi group: Bura, Cibak, Kilba, Kofa, Margi, Margi South, Nggwahyi, Putai

Mandara group: Cineni, Dghwede, Glavda, Guduf, Gvoko, Mandara (Malgwa), Matal, Podoko

Mofu group: Dugwor, Mada, Merey, Mofu-gudur, Mofu North, Moloko, Muyang, Ouldeme, Zulgo (Gemzek)

Maroua group: Giziga Marva, Giziga Moutourwa, Mbazla

Lamang group: Hdi, Lamang, Mabas

Higi group: Bana, Hya, Kamwe (Futu, Nkafa), Kirya, Psikye

Kotoko Island group: Buduma

Kotoko North group: Afade, Malgbe, Maltan, Mpade

Kotoko Centre group: Lagwan, Mser

Kotoko South group: Mazera, Zina

Musgum group: Mbara, Musgum (Mulwi, Munjuk, Vulum), Muskum

Gidar group: Gidar

In some cases, comparative data is given from languages of wider communication, such as Adamawa Fulfulde, Kanuri and Hausa.

Reconstructions

Not all of the reconstructions given can be attributed to Proto-Central Chadic. The data includes several alternate isoglosses for common roots, and also several widespread loan words that entered into Central Chadic at an early stage in its history. The commentary on each entry will indicate how the reconstruction should be treated if it is not attributable to Proto-Central Chadic.

For some nouns, the gender is included. Gender is a feature in a minority of Central Chadic languages, but when the gender of a noun is consistent across these languages, that gender is given as the gender of the reconstructed form. These attributions cannot be treated as reliable.

Data Sources

The data sources cited are as follows:

Language [code]

Group

Source

Type

Afade [aal]

Kotoko North

(Allison n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Bachama [bcy]

Bata

(Seibert n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Bana [bcw]

Higi

(Lienhard and Giger 1989)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Bata [bta]

Bata

(Boyd 2005)

Lexicon (unpublished)

 

 

(Pweddon and Skinner 2001)

Dictionary

Boga [bvw]

Tera

none

 

Buduma [bdm]

Kotoko Island

(McKone 2009)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Bura [bwr]

Margi

(Blench 2009a)

Dictionary (unpublished)

 

 

(Schuh n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Buwal [bhs]

Daba

(Viljoen and Viljoen in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Cibak [ckl]

Margi

(Hoffmann 1955)

Linguistic article

Cineni [cie]

Mandara

none

 

Cuvok [cuv]

Mafa

(Ndokobaï in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Daba [dbq]

Daba

(Lienhard and Giger 1982)

Dictionary

Dghwede [dgh]

Mandara

(Frick 1977)

Linguistic article

Dugwor [dme]

Mofu

(Gravina and Jubumna 2004)

Word list (unpublished)

Fali [fli]

Bata

none

 

Ga’anda [gqa]

Tera

(Newman 1978)

Word list (unpublished)

Gavar [gou]

Daba

(Viljoen and Viljoen in progress)

Word list (unpublished)

Gemzek [gnd]

Mofu

(Gravina, Sabathaï, and Gwala-Madang n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Gidar [gid]

Gidar

(Schuh 1982)

Word list

 

 

(Hungerford n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

 

 

(Noukeu 2002)

Linguistic article

Giziga North [gis]

Maroua

(Gravina 2004)

Word list (unpublished)

Giziga South [giz]

Maroua

(Michielan and Jaouen in progress)

Dictionary (unpublished)

Glavda [glw]

Mandara

(Rapp and Benzing 1968; Rapp and Muehle 1969)

Dictionary

 

 

(Owens n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

 

 

(Nghagyiva n.d.)

Database

Gude [gde]

Bata

(Hoskison 1983)

PhD Thesis

 

 

(Schuh n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Gudu [gdu]

Bata

none

 

Guduf-Gava [gdf]

Mandara

none

 

Gvoko [ngs]

Mandara

none

 

Hdi [xed]

Lamang

(Bramlett 1996)

Lexicon

 

 

(Eguchi 1971)

Lexicon

Higi [hig]

Higi

(Mohrlang 1972)

Phonology

Holma [hod]

Bata

none

 

Hwana [hwo]

Tera

(Harley n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Hya [hya]

Higi

none

 

Jara [jaf]

Tera

none

 

Jilbe [jie]

Kotoko

none

 

Jimi [jim]

Bata

(Djibi n.d.)

Dictionary (locally published)

Kamwe Futu [hig]

Higi

(Harley 2009a)

Word list (unpublished)

Kamwe Nkafa [hig]

Higi

(Harley 2009b)

Word list (unpublished)

Kilba [hbb]

Margi

(Schuh n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Kirya [hig]

Higi

(Blench and Ndamsai 2009a)

Dictionary (unpublished)

Kofa [kso]

Margi

none

 

Lagwan [kot]

Kotoko Centre

(Shryock n.d.)

Database

Lamang [hia]

Lamang

(Wolff n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Mabas [vem]

Lamang

none

 

Mada [mxu]

Mofu

(Barreteau and Brunet 2000)

Dictionary

 

 

(Nkoumou and Telemnke 2003)

Dictionary

Mafa [maf]

Mafa

(Barreteau and le Bléis 1990)

Dictionary

Malgbe [mxf]

Kotoko North

(Allison n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Malgwa [mfi]

Mandara

(Löhr 2005)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Maltam [msv]

Kotoko North

(Allison n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Mandara [mfi]

Mandara

(Fluckiger and Whaley n.d.)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Margi [mrt]

Margi

(Hoffmann 1963)

Grammar

Margi South [mfm]

Margi

(Harley n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Matal [mfh]

Mandara

(Branger in progress)

Word list (unpublished)

Mazagway [dkx]

Daba

(Noussi n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Mazera [xmj]

Kotoko South

(Allison n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Mbara [mpk]

Musgum

(Tourneux, Seignobos, and Lafarge 1986)

Word list

Mbazla [bdn]

Maroua

(Seignobos and Tourneux 1984; Tourneux 1987)

Word list

Mbudum [xmd]

Daba

(Ndokobaï in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Mbuko [mqb]

Hurza

(Gravina in progress)

Dictionary (unpublished)

Mefele [mfj]

Mafa

none

 

Merey­ [meq]

Mofu

(Gravina and Doumok in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Mina [hna]

Daba

(Frajzyngier, Johnston, and Edwards 2005)

Grammar

Mofu North [mfk]

Mofu

(Barreteau and Hollingsworth 1990)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Mofu-Gudur [mif]

Mofu

(Barreteau 1988)

Dictionary

 

 

(Hollingsworth and Hollingsworth 2009)

Dictionary

Moloko [mlw]

Mofu

(Friesen and Starr n.d.)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Mpade [mpi]

Kotoko North

(Allison n.d.)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Mser [kqx]

Kotoko North

(Allison n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Mulwi [mug]

Musgum

(Tourneux 1978a)

Linguistic article

Munjuk [mug]

Musgum

(Tourneux 1991)

Dictionary

Muskum [mje]

Musgum

(Tourneux 1977)

Linguistic article

Muyang [muy]

Mofu

(Smith forthcoming)

Dictionary

Nggwahyi [ngx]

Margi

none

 

Ngwaba [ngw]

Bata

none

 

Nzanyi [nja]

Bata

none

 

Ouldeme [udl]

Mofu

(Kinnaird in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Podoko [pbi]

Mandara

(Zagba, Jarvis, and Siddi 1986)

Lexicon

Psikye [kvj]

Higi

(Mazzucci 2006)

Locally published description

Putai [mfl]

Margi

none

 

Sharwa [swq]

Bata

(Gravina n.d.)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Sukur [syk]

Sukur

(David 1996)

Word lists

 

 

(Thomas in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Tera [ttr]

Tera

(Newman 1964)

Word list

Tsuvan [tsh]

Bata

(Johnston n.d.)

Word list (unpublished)

Vame [mlr]

Hurza

(Kinnaird in progress)

Lexicon (unpublished)

Zina [jia]

Kotoko South

(Schmidt, Odden, and Holmberg 2002)

Word list

Zizilivakan [ziz]

Bata

none

 

Zulgo [gnd]

Mofu

(Haller 1986)

Lexicon