ra v. dig creuser (12 groups, 34 languages) A
The basic meaning of this verb is 'to dig'. In many languages the meaning extends to burying dead people and digging up peanuts, amongst other things. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch. This change is also expected in Proto-Daba, but two of the three sub-groups retain *r.

1Proto-Bata *ra dig creuser 1.1) Bata (Boyd) dig (hole, using iron instrument); dig_up (yams) 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ra dig 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ran Creuser ;

2Proto-Daba *ra dig creuser 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) dig creuser 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) dig creuser 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) harvest, dig up (yams) récolter, déterrer (ignames) 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəra dig creuser 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) kəra hollow out (log) creuser, évider (rondin) 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) creuser, s'installer, habiter, récolter, castrer 2.5) MazagwayHidi (Noussi) la creuser

3Proto-Tera *ra dig creuser 3.1) Tera (Newman) ra dig 3.1.1) Tera (Newman) ra plait 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ra dig

4Proto-Sukur *rɨ dig creuser 4.1) Sukur (David) dig, harvest by digging, to 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) harvesting; is the general term for harvesting of crops that grow under the soil for example groundnut, potato, cassava etc.

5Proto-Hurza *ra dig creuser 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) la dig creuser 5.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) la dig up déterrer (les arachides) 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) ráwā dig creuser 5.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) rā mə̄tskā bury enterrer

6Proto-Margi *la dig creuser 6.1) Bura (Blench) la To dig 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) la dig 6.3) Kilba (Schuh) la/a dig

7Proto-Mandara *la dig creuser 7.1) Matal (Branger) malaj dig creuser 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) lahá creuser

8Proto-Mofu *la dig creuser 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) dig creuser, enterrement 8.1.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) enterrer 8.2) Muyang (Smith) li dig deeply creuser profondement 8.3) Mada (Nkoumou) méle creuser (récolter les choses en terre) 8.3.1) Mada (Nkoumou) mele creuser 8.4) Moloko (Friesen) laj dig creuser 8.5) Zulgo (Haller) le creuser 8.6) Gemzek (Sabatai) mele hollow out (log) creuser, évider (rondin) 8.6.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mele dig creuser 8.6.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) mele ᵐburo enterrer 8.7) Merey (Gravina) la dig creuser, évider (rondin) 8.8) Dugwor (Jubumna) malij abed dig creuser 8.8.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) malij abeɗ hollow out (log) creuser, évider (rondin) 8.8.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) mala haj abed bury enterrer, ensevelir

9Proto-Maroua *li dig creuser 9.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) li gʷaf dig creuser

10Proto-Lamang *la dig creuser 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) la dig

11Proto-Higi *la dig creuser 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) dig 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) lakə dig (hole) 11.3) Kirya (Blench) to dig 11.4) Psikye (Angelo) dig 11.5) Bana (Lienhard) creuser, déterrer, enlever l'intérieur d'un carquois, etc. qqch. our on ne voit pas l'intérieur

12Proto-Kotoko Island *la dig creuser 12.1) Buduma (McKone) la creuser.
raj n. field champ (5 groups, 12 languages) B syn: gʷɨvɨh, sɨka, ɣʷɨr.
This is one of several roots found within Central Chadic for 'field'. The Kotoko North languages are distant from the other languages where this root is found, so the forms found there might just be chance similarities. There were regular changes *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch (here Mofu and Kotoko North), in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok.

1Proto-Bata *rɨ field champ 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) rá -ə field, farm plot 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) Champ 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) əle le champs

2Proto-Daba *laj field champ 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) field champ 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) field champ 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) laj fields champs 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) làj bīz le champs

3Proto-Mafa *raj ʸ field champ 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) lej fields champs

4Proto-Mofu *laj ʸ field champ 4.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) lēj champ 4.1.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) lēj brousse 4.1.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) lēj sauv"age (eu ....s?) 4.2) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) lej field champ, «brousse» (fr. d'Afrique) ; sauvage (en locution)

5Proto-Kotoko North *lala field champ 5.1) Afade (Allison) lala the bush, fields brousse, champs 5.2) Mpade (Allison) làlà the bush, fields brousse, champs
raᵑgaɬ ʸ nm. brain cerveau (6 groups, 12 languages) D
The forms given here can be divided between those that include a prenasalised consonant and those that don't. Those that don't could be reflexes of a form such as *ɗaraɬ ʸ. The *ɗ is lost in Matal, Zulgo Gemzek and Giziga Marva, and has combined with *ɬ in Afade, Maltam and Mser. These are common sporadic processes. The change *ɬ→s in Mser is regular. It is harder to show relatedness for the forms with a prenasalised consonant. It is also not possible to say that all these forms are cognate.

1Proto-Hurza *mɨkɨlaᵑgaɬ ʸ brain cerveau 1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) məkəliᵑgeɬ brain cerveau

2Proto-Mandara *ariɬ brain cerveau 2.1) Matal (Branger) ariɬ brain cerveau

3Proto-Mofu *aⁿdɨɬ ʸ, araɮ ʸ, ɗaᵑgaɬ ʸ brain cerveau 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āⁿdéɬ brains cerveaux 3.2) Muyang (Smith) eⁿdiɬ brain cerveau 3.3) Zulgo (Haller) areɮ cerveau m. 3.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) areɮ brain cerveau 3.5) Merey (Gravina) ɗeᵑgeɬ brain cerveau 3.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) aleᵑgeɬ brain cerveau

4Proto-Maroua *alaɬ ʸ brain cerveau 4.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) aleɬ brain cerveau

5Proto-Kotoko North *erɬʼi brain cerveau 5.1) Afade (Allison) erɬʼi brain cerveau 5.2) Maltam (Allison) eriɬʼi brain cerveau

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *meresʼɨ brain cerveau 6.1) Mser (Allison) meresʼɨ brain cerveau
rigɨ n. crocodile crocodile (4 groups, 7 languages) B syn: kɨdɨm.
This root is only found within the Kotoko languages. *kɨdɨm is the Proto-Chadic root.

1Proto-Kotoko Island *ligɨ crocodile crocodile 1.1) Buduma (McKone) ligə crocodile crocodile

2Proto-Kotoko North *ligɨ crocodile crocodile 2.1) Afade (Allison) ligo crocodile crocodile 2.2) Mpade (Allison) ligɨ crocodile crocodile 2.3) Malgbe (Allison) ligɨ crocodile crocodile

3Proto-Kotoko Centre *mɨrɨge crocodile crocodile 3.1) Lagwan (Allison) mɨdɨge crocodile crocodile 3.2) Mser (Allison) mɨrge crocodile crocodile

4Proto-Kotoko South *liɣe crocodile crocodile 4.1) Mazera (Allison) liɣe crocodile crocodile
rɨgɨɗ ʸ nm. bow arc (12 groups, 36 languages) A
This word denotes the bow used for hunting or warfare. There was a regular change *r→l in the groups of the North sub-branch and Cuvok. Here we also find /l/ in Mafa where /r/ is expected. The *g has the reflex *k in Proto-Mafa, Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua. It has the reflex *ɣ in Proto-Lamang, and has been lost in Proto-Tera and Proto-Sukur, possibly following an earlier *g→ɣ. These are unestablished changes. *ɗ has been lost in most groups. This may be due to interaction with the palatalisation prosody, i.e. *ɗ ʸ→j, with *j being lost or reanalysed in some groups. This is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *ragɨ bow arc 1.1) Bata (Boyd) ràgé bow 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ràgá -ə bow 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ragən Arc

2Proto-Mafa *lakaɗ ʸ, lalaŋ bow arc 2.1) Mafa (Barreteat) lekeɗ arc 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) lalaŋ bow (hunting) arc (de chasse)

3Proto-Tera *ri bow arc 3.1) Tera (Newman) ri bow 3.2) Nyimatli (Harley) ri bow (hunting)

4Proto-Sukur *raj bow arc 4.1) Sukur (David) raj bow 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) rai bow: is to used with arrow for shooting things of people.

5Proto-Hurza *lɨga ʸ bow arc 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) liᵑge bow arc 5.2) Vame (Kinnaird) lə́ká bow ; arch arc

6Proto-Margi *laga bow arc 6.1) Bura (Blench) làlì Bow (weapon) 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) laga bow 6.3) Margi South (Harley) lagga bow 6.4) Kilba (Schuh) laga bow

7Proto-Mandara *lika bow arc 7.1) Matal (Branger) ālàk bow arc 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) liká,-a arc 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) elke arc (m) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əlke bow 7.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) làːːʁa bow (hunting)

8Proto-Mofu *hɨlɨgɨɗ ʸ bow arc 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) àlàk bow arc 8.2) Mada (Nkoumou) elekeɗ/elegeɗ arc 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) meᵑgelek bow arc 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) lìkíɗ arc m. 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) halaŋ bow (hunting) arc (de chasse) 8.6) Merey (Gravina) lalaŋ arc 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) həlek bow (hunting) arc (de chasse) 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) lálàŋ arc 8.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) leléŋ arc 8.9.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) leléŋ humidité (après la pluie)

9Proto-Maroua *halak ʸ bow arc 9.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) helek bow (hunting) arc (de chasse) 9.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) helek arc

10Proto-Lamang *lɨɣeɗ bow arc 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) leɣe bow 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) ləɣeɗ bow l'arc

11Proto-Higi *lɨgɨj bow arc 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) lìgjí Bow 11.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) ligji bow 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) regi bow (for hunting) 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) rə̀gì arc (pour chasser)

12Proto-Musgum *gɨⁿdɨlɨŋ ʸ bow arc 12.1) Mbara (Tourneux) giⁿdiliŋ bow
rɨwɨts ʸ nm. hearth foyer (11 groups, 30 languages) A
This word refers to the fireplace with three stones that is used for cooking. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, in Proto-Daba and in Cuvok (separately). There was a regular change *ts→t in Proto-Bata and Proto-Lamang. The same change in Proto-Mofu and Proto-Higi is irregular. It is expected that *ts would have the reflex /s/ in Sukur, but this is not the case. *w has been reanalysed as a vowel in Sukur, and has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process. The palatalisation prosody is found in all groups where it exists, except for Sukur. The front vowels in Proto-Lamang are reflexes of the palatalisation prosody.

1Proto-Bata *rɨtɨ ʸ hearth foyer 1.1) Sharwa (Gravina) rjəti foyer

2Proto-Daba *lɨwɨts ʸ hearth foyer 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ləwetʃ fireplace foyer 2.2) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) luwitʃ fireplace foyer

3Proto-Mafa *rɨwats ʸ hearth foyer 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) ruwetʃ foyer à marmite 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) luwetʃ cooking stone pierre à cuire 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) luwetʃ fireplace foyer

4Proto-Sukur *ruts hearth foyer 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) ruts fireplace

5Proto-Hurza *rɨwats ʸ hearth foyer 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ruwetʃ fire foyer

6Proto-Mandara *lɨwtsɨ ʸ hearth foyer 6.1) Matal (Branger) ləts fireplace foyer 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) lutʃe,-ə foyer 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) eltʃa foyer (m) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əltʃa stove, fireplace, hearth 6.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ɨ̀lt͡sa fireplace

7Proto-Mofu *lɨwɨt ʸ hearth foyer 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) līwīt hearth foyer 7.2) Muyang (Smith) lʉwit hearth foyer 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) ləwte hearth, fireplace lieu pour cuire la nourriture 7.4) Zulgo (Haller) líwít foyer m. 7.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) luwet fireplace foyer 7.6) Merey (Gravina) luwets feu de la cuisine 7.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) Luwet cooking stone pierre à cuire 7.7.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) luwet fireplace foyer 7.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) lə̀wèts foyer 7.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́ləwetʃ foyer

8Proto-Maroua *lɨwɨts ʸ hearth foyer 8.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) liwis(i) âtre, foyer 8.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) liwis(i) pierre du foyer 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) liwes cooking stone pierre à cuire 8.2.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) liwes fireplace foyer 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) lutʃi foyer

9Proto-Lamang *liti hearth foyer 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) liti fireplace 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) litik 3-stone cooking area le foyer à 3 pièrres

10Proto-Higi *lɨtwɨ hearth foyer 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) rə̀twə́ Fireplace. 10.2) Bana (Lienhard) lə̀t(ə) foyer à cuire

11Proto-Musgum *lɨwɨt ʸ hearth foyer 11.1) Mbara (Tourneux) liwit fire-place, hearth 11.2) Muskum (Tourneux) wit foyer