v₁ v. to give donner (7 groups, 17 languages) A syn: vɨr.
This root is possibly cognate with the longer *vɨr, though there is no known regular process for deleting a final *r. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular.

1Proto-Bata *vɨ give donner 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) give 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vən Donner ; 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) donner 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) a vekən donner

2Proto-Mafa *va give donner 2.1) Mafa (Barrreteau) va donner 2.2) Cuvok (Gravina) va give donner

3Proto-Mandara *va give donner 3.1) Matal (Branger) mavaj give donner 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) va donner 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) donner 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) va give

4Proto-Higi *vɨ give donner 4.1) Psikye (Angelo) give

5Proto-Kotoko North *fi give donner 5.1) Afade (Allison) fi give donner 5.2) Mpade (Allison) give donner 5.3) Malgbe (Allison) fidɨ; fi give donner

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *vaw give donner 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) vawun (va) give donner 6.2) Mser (Allison) vo (ri) give donner

7Proto-Gidar *ɨvaja give donner 7.1) Gidar (Schuh) əvaja donner
v₂ v. blow souffler (8 groups, 18 languages) B cf: vats, viɮ, pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸ.
The basic sense is 'blowing with the mouth'. The root is not attested in any languages of the South sub-branch. The change *v→f is regular in Proto-Margi and Proto-Kotoko Island, but not in the other groups.

1Proto-Hurza *fɨ blow souffler 1.1) Vame (Kinnaird) fə̄fú whistle siffler 1.1.1) Vame (Kinnaird) fúwā blow souffler_(du vent)

2Proto-Margi *fi blow souffler 2.1) Bura (Blench) fjâ To blow Also fî 2.1.1) Bura (Blench) To blow Also fyâ

3Proto-Mofu *v blow souffler 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) siffler 3.2) Muyang (Smith) vu blowing soufflant 3.3) Mada (Nkoumou) mevea souffler 3.4) Moloko (Friesen) fe blow in an instrument siffler_un_instrument 3.4.1) Moloko (Friesen) fe play an instrument jouer un instrument 3.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) mafaj whistle (v) siffler 3.5.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mafaj hiss siffler (serpent) 3.5.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) ma faj blow (horn) souffler dans (un cor) 3.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) f ́ blow, play a wind instrument souffler, siffler, jouer (d'un instrument à vent)

4Proto-Maroua *fɨ blow souffler 4.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) fi souffler (avec un instrument) 4.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) fi prendre de l'air, liberté, repos 4.1.2) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) fi annoncer la chasse 4.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) fi gʷaf blow (horn) souffler dans (un cor) 4.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) fuwi souffler

5Proto-Lamang *vɨ blow souffler 5.1) Lamang (Wolff) vija blow 5.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) vuxa blow 5.1.2) Lamang (Wolff) va blow (bellows) 5.2) Hdi (Bramlett) vihaj to whistle siffler

6Proto-Higi *vi blow souffler 6.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vi blow (of wind) 6.2) Kirya (Blench) to blow as a flute 6.3) Bana (Lienhard) vij souffler, siffler

7Proto-Kotoko Island *fa blow souffler 7.1) Buduma (McKone) fa souffler, allumer.

8Proto-Musgum *vuvuwi blow souffler 8.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) vuvuwi souffler (avec un soufflet)
vats v. to blow souffler (6 groups, 12 languages) B cf: viɮ, v, pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸ.
The basic sense of this root is 'to blow' or 'to breathe' with a human agent. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North. There is a change *ts→s in Sukur, Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Kotoko Centre. In Sukur this change is regular.

1Proto-Bata *vats blow souffler 1.1) Tsuvan (Johnston) a vatskən souffler

2Proto-Sukur *vus blow souffler 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) vus blow;- blowing either flute or fire wood

3Proto-Mofu *vats blow souffler 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) vàtsàj at the forge souffler; activer le feu de la fonderie 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) mevətse blow (of wind) (v) souffler (vent)

4Proto-Higi *visɨ blow souffler 4.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vəsə́ blow 4.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) visi blow (with mouth)

5Proto-Kotoko North *fas blow souffler 5.1) Afade (Allison) ɬe fti; ɬel fti; ɬʼe fti ? breathe respirer 5.2) Mpade (Allison) ʃá fàsɨ́ blow souffler 5.2.1) Mpade (Allison) là fàsɨ́ breathe respirer 5.3) Malgbe (Allison) ledɨ fasɨ breathe respirer 5.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) kidɨ fasɨ blow souffler

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *vas blow souffler 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) ɬel vìʃì (ɬe) blow souffler 6.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) xɬel vìʃì (xɬe) breathe respirer 6.2) Mser (Allison) sali vas blow souffler 6.2.1) Mser (Allison) se vas breathe respirer

7Shoa Arabic fasa; fasi; fasu blow souffler 7.1) Shoa Arabic fasa; fasi; fasu breathe respirer
vida nf. hare lièvre (6 groups, 16 languages) C syn: hʷaⁿdav.
This is one of two possibly related roots for 'hare', the other being *hʷaⁿdav. There was a regular intervocalic change *d→r in the North sub-branch, and there were subsequent regular changes *r→l in various languages. However, these changes do not account for all the surface forms. In particular, the Margi form appears cognate but does not conform with established rules. There is no known rule that would predict the presence of *p as the initial consonant. There is good evidence for *i from all groups, though in Sukur /i/ would be expected rather than the palatalisation prosody.

1Proto-Bata *vidɨ hare lièvre 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) pítjá rabbit, hare lièvre 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vidən Lapin 1.3) Tsuvan (Johnston) vitikən le lapin

2Proto-Sukur *vila hare lièvre 2.1) Sukur (David) vəlja hare lièvre 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) vilja hare

3Proto-Margi *pita hare lièvre 3.1) Bura (Blench) pti Hare or rabbit lièvre 3.2) Margi (Hoffman) pitə rabbit lièvre 3.3) Margi South (Harley) pitu rabbit lièvre 3.4) Kilba (Schuh) pita hare

4Proto-Mandara *vida hare lièvre 4.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) víra,-a lapin 4.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) navíré lapin (m), lièvre (m) 4.3) Malgwa (Löhr) naviira ŋa hare lièvre 4.3.1) Malgwa (Löhr) naviire hare, wild lièvre 4.4) Glavda (Owens) vii hare lièvre 4.4.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vìːda hare lièvre

5Proto-Lamang *vila hare lièvre 5.1) Hdi (Bramlett) vilakʷ hare, rabbit le lièvre, le lapin

6Proto-Higi *vira hare lièvre 6.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vira hare lièvre 6.2) Kirya (Blench) pítə̀ hare, rabbit lièvre 6.3) Bana (Lienhard) v(ə̀)lè lapin
viɗ nf. night nuit (17 groups, 45 languages) B
This root is attested in all groups except for Kotoko Island. *v is realised as *f in Proto-Kotoko North as a regular reflex, and in Proto-Gidar where *b is expected. *f is also expected in Proto-Musgum, but *v is present. *ɗ is unusually stable. In Mbuko and Zina we find /n/ where we would expect a reflex of *ɗ. Many languages have an initial consonant on the root, which can be /l/, /h/, /s/, /t/, /r/ or /d/. Often an initial consonant is appended when an original consonant was lost. This may have been *hʷ, with the labialisation accounting for the forms in Proto-Daba, Proto-Hurza, Proto-Margi and Proto-Maroua. However, each language has a particular consonant that is used to compensate for lost material, and the consonants found here don't match the compensatory consonants. Until a good explanation is available, we will assume that the original root had no initial consonant.

1Proto-Bata *vɨɗɨ night nuit 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) və̀ɗá -ə night 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vəɗən La nuit 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) vɨɗə nuit

2Proto-Daba *vɨɗɨʔ ʷ night nuit 2.1) Daba (Lienhard) vùɗūʼ la nuit

3Proto-Mafa *vaɗ, lɨvaŋ night nuit 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) vaɗ night nuit 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) vaɗ night nuit 3.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) ləvaŋ night nuit

4Proto-Tera *viɗki night nuit 4.1) Tera (Newman) viɗki night 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) virkiri night 4.3) Hwana (Harley) fɨ̀ɗìgɹ̝á night

5Proto-Sukur *vɨɗ night nuit 5.1) Sukur (David) vəɗ night 5.2) Sukur (David) vaj night 5.3) Sukur (Thomas) vəɗ night; the time between one day and next when it is dark, when people usually sleep.

6Proto-Hurza *luvaɗ night nuit 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) luvon night, dark nuit 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) lùváɗ night nuit

7Proto-Margi *vʷɨɗi night nuit 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) viʼi night 7.2) Margi South (Harley) vʷiʼi night 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) vuʼi night 7.4) Bura (Blench) viri Night 7.4.1) Bura (Blench) vir Day (24 hours)

8Proto-Mandara *vɨɗi night nuit 8.1) Matal (Branger) vəɗ night nuit 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) və́ɗa,-ə nuit 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) vajíá nuit (f) 8.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àvᵊɗa night 8.4.1) Glavda (Owens) ávd night 8.4.2) Glavda (Owens) avəď, k-avəď-áana night, this night 8.5) Dghwede (Frick) vɨtʼe night 8.5.1) Dghwede (Frick) vitʼe night

9Proto-Mofu *hɨvɨɗ night nuit 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) lāvàɗ night nuit 9.2) Muyang (Smith) vɑɗ the period of a day la journée, y compris la nuit ; la nuit 9.3) Zulgo (Haller) hə̀və̀ɗ nuit f. 9.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) həvaɗ night nuit 9.5) Mofu North (Barreteau) sévàd la nuit 9.6) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) taváɗ nuit

10Proto-Maroua *avɨɗ ʷ night nuit 10.1) Mbazla (Tourneux) avuɗ nuit 10.1.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) āvūt night nuit

11Proto-Lamang *rɨviɗi night nuit 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) rvìɗì night 11.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) rvíɗí night 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) rəviɗik night la nuit

12Proto-Higi *viɗ night nuit 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vərə night 12.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vəɹə night 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) viɗi night 12.3) Kirya (Blench) və̀lè night 12.4) Psikye (Angelo) víɗi night

13Proto-Kotoko North *faɗe night nuit 13.1) Afade (Allison) faɗe night nuit 13.2) Mpade (Allison) fàɗè night nuit 13.3) Malgbe (Allison) faɗe night nuit

14Proto-Kotoko Centre *nvaɗe night nuit 14.1) Lagwan (Allison) nvaɗe; mvaɗe night nuit 14.2) Mser (Allison) nvaɗe night nuit

15Proto-Kotoko South *lɨvin night nuit 15.1) Zina (Odden) lə̀vìn night nuit

16Proto-Musgum *dɨvɨɗ ʸ night nuit 16.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) divik nuit 16.2) Vulum (Tourneux) dɨvɨk nuit 16.3) Mbara (Tourneux) diviʼdaj night 16.4) Muskum (Tourneux) arvɨl nuit

17Proto-Gidar *ɗɨfɗɨ night nuit 17.1) Gidar (Hungerford) dəfɗa nuit 17.2) Gidar (Schuh) dəfɗa/0 nuit
viɮ v. to blow souffler (6 groups, 11 languages) B cf: vats, v, pikʷ/pɨkʷ ʸ.
This root is found in a diverse collection of languages. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North is regular, as is the change *ɮ→l in Bata. The other changes affecting *ɮ are not known to be regular, but data is limited.

1Proto-Bata *fil blow souffler 1.1) Bata (Boyd) fíl whistle

2Proto-Hurza *vɨɮa ʸ blow souffler 2.1) Mbuko (Gravina) vəɮe breathe souffler, respirer

3Proto-Mofu *vɨɮ blow souffler 3.1) Zulgo (Haller) viɮ souffler 3.1.1) Zulgo (Haller) viɮ(-ér) souffler, donner un coup d'air pour enlever, éloigner, éteindre etc. 3.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) mevəɮe souffler 3.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mevəɬe a duk blow (horn) souffler dans (un cor) 3.3) Merey (Gravina) vəɮ blow (horn) souffler dans (un cor) 3.3.1) Merey (Gravina) vəɮ blow souffler 3.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) məvəɮej blow (of wind) (v) souffler (vent) 3.4.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) məvəɮej blow souffler

4Proto-Lamang *vuɬ blow souffler 4.1) Hdi (Bramlett) vuɬaj to blow souffler

5Proto-Kotoko North *fɨl blow souffler 5.1) Mpade (Allison) fɨ̀l blow away s'envoler 5.2) Malgbe (Allison) fɨle blow away s'envoler

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨl blow souffler 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨlwun blow away s'envoler 6.2) Mser (Allison) vɨl blow away s'envoler
vɨdɨj nm. monkey singe (5 groups, 16 languages) C
There are three species of monkey indigenous to the Central Chadic region, the patas, the vervet and the baboon. This term was probably generic. The changes *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and *v→b in Gidar are both regular. The quality of the medial consonant is unclear. There was a general regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch (which encompasses all groups represented here except for Tera) and also a medial change *d→r. The data is most consistent with *d as the medial consonant, even though *d is only present in one language. There are possible cognates of the form [vɨdze] in the Lamang and Hurza groups.

1Proto-Tera *viɗi monkey singe 1.1) Tera (Newman) viɗi monkey (general term and esp. red patas) 1.2) Nyimatli (Harley) viti monkey

2Proto-Mandara *vɨri monkey singe 2.1) Matal (Branger) vədaj monkey singe 2.2) Mandara (Fluckiger) véré singe (m) 2.3) Malgwa (Löhr) vəre monkey gen., ape 2.4) Glavda (Owens) bíri monkey

3Proto-Mofu *vɨrɨj monkey singe 3.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) və̀ràj singe 3.2) Muyang (Smith) viri Patas monkey singe rouge 3.3) Zulgo (Haller) bìrè cynocéphale m. 3.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) bəre monkey singe 3.5) Merey (Gravina) bəre monkey singe 3.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) bəre monkey singe

4Proto-Kotoko North *fɨli monkey singe 4.1) Afade (Allison) fɨli monkey singe 4.2) Mpade (Allison) flì monkey singe 4.3) Malgbe (Allison) fli monkey singe

5Proto-Gidar *bɨrɨja monkey singe 5.1) Gidar (Schuh) bərja/a singe 5.2) Gidar (Hungerford) brija singe 5.3) Gidar (Hungerford) brija babouin
vɨgɨɗ ʸ n. hole trou (6 groups, 20 languages) C syn: gɨʔʷ.
There was a regular change *v
→b in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. The medial *g has been lost in all groups except for Proto-Mandara and Proto-Maroua, probably via an intermediate change to *ɣ, both of which are unestablished changes. (The Mofu-Gudur form may be borrowed from Giziga Marva.) In Proto-Mafa and Gidar the loss of *g has been compensated for by the reduplication of the first syllable, which is a common sporadic process. The labialisation prosody in Gidar and the /u/ in Sukur may indicate that *gʷ should be reconstructed instead of *g. The final *ɗ has been lost in Proto-Mandara and Proto-Gidar. Within the Mofu group, several languages have /j/ as a result of the palatalisation prosody causing *ɗʲ→j. These are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Mafa *vavaɗ ʸ hole trou 1.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) veveɗ trou

2Proto-Sukur *vuɗ hole trou 2.1) Sukur (David) vuɗ hole 2.2) Sukur (Thomas) vuɗ Hole: is a hollow space in a something solid or in the surfaceof something.

3Proto-Mandara *vɨgɨ ʸ hole trou 3.1) Matal (Branger) afik hole trou 3.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) vɨ́ge trou 3.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) évege trou (m) 3.4) Malgwa (Löhr) əvəge hole 3.5) Glavda (Owens) aaf hole 3.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) àfka hole 3.6) Dghwede (Frick) fke hole

4Proto-Mofu *vɨɗ ʸ hole trou 4.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āvì hole trou 4.2) Mada (Barreteau) vvèɗ trou 4.3) Moloko (Friesen) pəɗe hole trou 4.4) Zulgo (Haller) bìje trou m. 4.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) bije hole trou 4.6) Merey (Gravina) bəɗ hole trou 4.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) abed hole; pit trou; fosse 4.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́vəgeɗ trou, orifice ; tombe

5Proto-Maroua *vɨgɨɗ ʸ hole trou 5.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) vigiɗ(i) trou, tombe 5.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) vigeɗ hole trou 5.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) veɗ trou

6Proto-Gidar *vɨva ʷ hole trou 6.1) Gidar (Hungerford) vovu trou 6.2) Gidar (Schuh) vomvu trou
vɨhʷ n. beer bière (4 groups, 12 languages) D syn: ɣʷɨzɨm, ᵐbaɮa.
This is one of several roots for beer. It is not certain that the Hurza roots presented here are cognate. The labialisation has transferred from *hʷ to *vʷ in Proto-Bata. *hʷ has the reflex *h in Proto-Mandara and *w in Proto-Daba. All these are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *vʷɨh beer bière 1.1) Bata (Boyd) vʷe beer 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) ə̀nvʷá beer 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ᵑgəvun Vin 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) vʷəh Bière 1.4.1) Sharwa (Gravina) vʷəh Vin 1.5) Tsuvan (Johnston) əvʷe le vin, la bière

2Proto-Daba *mavɨw beer bière 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɑvɑw beer (traditional) bière (traditionnelle) 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mɑvə beer (traditional) bière (traditionnelle) 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mavu millet beer bière de mil 2.3.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) mavu beer bière 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) mòvū le vin filtré, la bière claire

3Proto-Hurza *mɨhaj beer bière 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) mahaj millet_beer bière de mil 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) mə̄háj beer (made from millet) bière de mil

4Proto-Mandara *pɨhi beer bière 4.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) pɨhe,-i bière de mil
vɨja nf. rainy season saison pluvieuse (12 groups, 38 languages) A
This word denotes the time of year when rain falls and crops can be grown, now roughly May to October. There is no widespread term for 'dry season'. The word can also be used as a measure of years. The change *v→p in Proto-Musgum and the Mofu languages is not regular. In Bata the *j has been reanalysed as the palatalisation prosody, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *va ʸ rainy season saison pluvieuse 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) vjánə rainy season 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vjan Saison pluvieuse 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) vja saison pluvieuse

2Proto-Daba *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) vəjɑ rainy season saison de pluies 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) vijɑ rainy season saison de pluies 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) vija rainy season saison de pluies 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) vìjà la saison de pluie, l'année

3Proto-Mafa *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) vija saison des pluies 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) vija rainy season saison de pluies

4Proto-Sukur *vi rainy season saison pluvieuse 4.1) Sukur (David) vi season, rainy 4.2) Sukur (Thomas) vi rainy season; the season of heavy continuous rain.

5Proto-Hurza *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 5.1) Mbuko (Gravina) vija rainy season saison pluvieuse 5.1.1) Mbuko (Gravina) vija saison pluvieuse

6Proto-Margi *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 6.1) Bura (Blench) vija Rainy season 6.1.1) Bura (Blench) avija In the rainy season 6.2) Margi (Hoffman) vija rainy season 6.3) Margi South (Harley) vʷija rainy season 6.3.1) Margi South (Harley) vuja rainy season 6.4) Kilba (Schuh) uvuja rainy season

7Proto-Mandara *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 7.1) Matal (Branger) vⁱ̄jā rainy season saison pluvieuse 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) víja,-ə saison pluvieuse 7.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) víá saison de pluies (f), moule (f) 7.4) Malgwa (Löhr) vija season, rainy 7.5) Glavda (Owens) viak Rainy season 7.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vìjàksa rainy season

8Proto-Mofu *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) wə̄lām lə̄vìjò rainy season saison de pluie 8.2) Muyang (Smith) milevi rainy season saison de pluies 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) vəja rainy season saison de pluie 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) vije saison (f.) des pluies 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) vije rainy season saison de pluies 8.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) vija rainy season saison de pluies 8.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) pija saison des pluies 8.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pijá saison des pluies 8.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) pijá maladie de peau, provoqué par la pluie

9Proto-Maroua *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 9.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) vija saison des pluies ( mai, juin, juillet, août, septembre) 9.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) vija pleine saison de pluies juillet, août 9.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) vija rainy season saison de pluies 9.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) vija saison des pluies

10Proto-Lamang *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 10.1) Lamang (Wolff) vija rainy season 10.2) Hdi (Bramlett) vija rainy season la saison des pluies

11Proto-Higi *vɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 11.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vija rainy season 11.2) Kirya (Blench) vìjá rainy season between April and September 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) víjà saison de pluies

12Proto-Musgum *pɨja rainy season saison pluvieuse 12.1) Vulum (Tourneux) apija saison des pluies 12.2) Mbara (Tourneux) pija rainy season
vɨjaw n. millet mil (4 groups, 6 languages) A syn: hɨjɨ, daw.
The change *v to *f in Kotoko North and Island is regular. The final /o/ in several languages is the reflex of the sequence *aw, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Hurza *vɨjaw millet mil 1.1) Vame (Kinnaird) vìjàw millet mil

2Proto-Kotoko Island *fɨjow millet mil 2.1) Buduma (McKone) fijow millet (rainy season) mil (saison de pluies) 2.2) Buduma (McKone) fijow sorghum (rainy season) sorgho (saison des pluies)

3Proto-Kotoko North *fɨjo millet mil 3.1) Afade (Allison) fejo millet (rainy season) mil (saison de pluies) 3.2) Mpade (Allison) fìò sorghum (rainy season) sorgho (saison des pluies) 3.2.1) Mpade (Allison) mfò millet (rainy season) mil (saison de pluies) 3.3) Malgbe (Allison) fijo guinea corn millet de Guinée, petit mil

4Proto-Kotoko Centre *vio millet mil 4.1) Lagwan (Allison) vio guinea corn millet de Guinée, petit mil
vɨn nm. rain pluie (9 groups, 25 languages) B
This root is widespread within Central Chadic, and is found elsewhere in Chadic. Surprisingly many languages do not have a term for 'rain' and use the term for 'water' instead. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar. The change *v→p in Proto-Margi is not established. There was a regular change *n→r word-finally in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence of labialisation in Proto-Bata, Giziga Marva and Gidar, which may imply that there was *w in the original root, or possible a lost initial
*hʷ, though there is insufficient evidence to include this in the reconstruction.

1Proto-Bata *vʷinɨ rain pluie 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) və̀ná -ə rain pluie 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vuunən Pluie 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) vʷənə pluie 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) vʷene la pluie

2Proto-Daba *van rain pluie 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) vɑn rain pluie 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) mɑnɑvɑn rain pluie 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) vaŋ rain pluie 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) vàn la pluie

3Proto-Hurza *avan ʸ rain pluie 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) iven rain pluie 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) àvèŋ 1 rain pluie

4Proto-Margi *par rain pluie 4.1) Margi (Hoffman) paɗə rain pluie 4.2) Kilba (Schuh) par rain pluie

5Proto-Mofu *avɨr rain pluie 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āvə̀r rain pluie 5.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑvər rain pluie 5.3) Moloko (Friesen) vár rain pluie 5.4) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) vár rain pluie, nuage

6Proto-Maroua *van ʷ rain pluie 6.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) von rain pluie

7Proto-Higi *van rain pluie 7.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) va 1.year.2.rain 7.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) va rain pluie 7.3) Kirya (Blench) vàn rain pluie 7.4) Psikye (Angelo) rain pluie 7.5) Bana (Lienhard) vàn pluie

8Proto-Musgum *faŋ rain pluie 8.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) faŋ pluie 8.2) Vulum (Tourneux) faŋ pluie

9Proto-Gidar *buna rain pluie 9.1) Gidar (Hungerford) buna pluie
vɨn ʸ nf. hut case (14 groups, 29 languages) B rel. to: ɣaj.
This root refers to an individual building for living in, rather than the compound as a whole. There was a regular change *v→b in Gidar and in the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group. *b is also found in Proto-Daba and in the Mandara subgroup of the Mandara group, but here the change is irregular. The change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North and Proto-Musgum is also regular. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. The evidence for the palatalisation prosody is limited, but favours including the prosody in the reconstruction.

1Proto-Bata *vɨni hut case 1.1) Bata (Boyd) vɨ̀ne room 1.2) Sharwa (Gravina) vɨra maison

2Proto-Daba *bɨŋ hut case 2.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) bəŋ hut case 2.1.1) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) bəŋ room pièce (de maison)

3Proto-Mafa *van ʸ hut case 3.1) Cuvok (Gravina) veŋ room pièce (de maison) 3.1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) veŋ hut case 3.1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) veŋ bedroom chambre (à dormir)

4Proto-Sukur *va hut case 4.1) Sukur (Thomas) va home; the house that you live, especially with your family.

5Proto-Margi *vi hut case 5.1) Kilba (Schuh) vi hut

6Proto-Mandara *bɨrɨ, vɨj hut case 6.1) Mandara (Fluckiger) bere maison, chambre (f) 6.2) Malgwa (Löhr) bəre room, hut 6.3) Glavda (Owens) house, area, quarter of a town (cf. Å‚al) 6.3.1) Glavda (Owens) v house

7Proto-Mofu *vɨr ʸ hut case 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) və̀r woman's bedroom chambre d'une femme 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) ver bedroom chambre 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) bir chambre (f.) du fils 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) bir chambre 7.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) bəra house chez 7.5) Merey (Gravina) ber hut case, chambre à coucher, pièce

8Proto-Maroua *vɨn ʸ hut case 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) veŋ room pièce (de maison) 8.1.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) veŋ hut case 8.1.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) veŋ house maison 8.1.3) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) veŋ bedroom chambre (à dormir) 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) viŋ maison

9Proto-Lamang *ivɨŋ hut case 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ívə̀ŋ hut 9.1.1) Lamang (Wolff) ívə̀ŋì hut 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) viŋ boy's room la chambre du garcãon

10Proto-Higi *vi hut case 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) vjì sleeping room. 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vi bedroom

11Proto-Kotoko North *fɨn hut case 11.1) Afade (Allison) fɨn hut case 11.2) Mpade (Allison) fɨ̀n hut case 11.3) Malgbe (Allison) fɨn hut case

12Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨni hut case 12.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨni; guamahɨ hut case 12.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨni e mɨsane bedroom chambre (à dormir) 12.2) Mser (Allison) vrio hut case 12.2.1) Mser (Allison) vɨr a havɨn bedroom chambre (à dormir)

13Proto-Musgum *funɨj hut case 13.1) Vulum (Tourneux) funii maison 13.2) Mulwi (Tourneux) funii maison 13.2.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) funii petite poterie à sauce 13.3) Mbara (Tourneux) fiŋaj house maison

14Proto-Gidar *biina hut case 14.1) Gidar (Hungerford) biina case, maison
vɨnah v. to vomit vomir (13 groups, 32 languages) A
There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Musgum. There was also a regular change *n→r word-medially in Proto-Mandara. The final *h has been lost in several groups, which is a common sporadic process.

1Proto-Bata *vɨna vomit vomir 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) vaana vomit 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) vənan 1 - Vomir ;; 2 - Vomissement

2Proto-Daba *vɨna vomit vomir 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) vənɑ vomit (v) vomir 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) vənɑ vomit (v) vomir 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) vən vomit (v) vomir 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) və̀nà vomir ; déteindre

3Proto-Mafa *vɨnaha ʸ vomit vomir 3.1) Mafa (Ndokobai) n vənehe vomir 3.1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) vínéh- vomir 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) vənaha vomit (v) vomir

4Proto-Tera *vɨnah vomit vomir 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) vu̱nakh vomit (v)

5Proto-Sukur *vinah vomit vomir 5.1) Sukur (Thomas) vinah vomit; to bring food from the stomach back out through the mouth.

6Proto-Hurza *vɨnah ʸ vomit vomir 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) vəne vomit vomir 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) və̀nàhà vomit vomir

7Proto-Mandara *vɨraha vomit vomir 7.1) Matal (Branger) màvlàhàj vomit vomir 7.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) və́raha 1 vomir 7.2.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) və́raha 2 se fondre (teinte) 7.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vrɛː̄gɛ vomit (v) 7.4) Dghwede (Frick) vraxa vomit

8Proto-Mofu *vɨnaha vomit vomir 8.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) və̀nàhàj vomit vomir 8.2) Mada (Nkoumou) mavnaha vomir 8.3) Moloko (Friesen) vənah vomit vomir 8.4) Zulgo (Haller) və̀nahá vomir 8.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) mevənehe vomir 8.6) Merey (Gravina) vənaha vomit (v) vomir 8.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məvənehej vomit (v) vomir 8.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) mévə̀nhèj vomir

9Proto-Lamang *vɨnah vomit vomir 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) vanaahʷa vomit 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) vənihaj to vomit vomir 9.2.1) Hdi (Bramlett) vənihi vomit le vomissement

10Proto-Higi *vɨnɨhʷɨ vomit vomir 10.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vineɣo to vomit; puke 10.2) Kirya (Blench) və̀nə̀hú to vomit 10.3) Bana (Lienhard) və̀nə̀xʷə̀ vomir, spitting image of

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨnahɨ vomit vomir 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨnahɨwun (vɨnahɨ) vomit (v) vomir

12Proto-Kotoko South *vɨnaha vomit vomir 12.1) Zina (Odden) və̀nàhà vomit (v) vomir

13Proto-Musgum *fɨna ʸ vomit vomir 13.1) Mbara (Tourneux) fine vomit vomir
vɨr₂ v. to fly voler (7 groups, 12 languages) A
This word has the basic meaning of 'to fly', but can also mean 'to jump' in some languages. There was a regular change *v→f in Proto-Kotoko North, and the same change has taken place in Gude, where it was irregular, and in Proto-Margi, where the change is found elsewhere but is unestablished. There was a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, though in this case we find /r/ in Zina.

1Proto-Bata *fɨr fly voler 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) fə́r flying away (of bird). voler

2Proto-Sukur *vwar jump sauter 2.1) Sukur (Thomas) vwar jump:- to move quikly off the ground or away from a surface by pushing your s your legs and feet.

3Proto-Margi *fɨl fly voler 3.1) Bura (Blench) fila To jump; to fly voler 3.2) Margi (Hoffman) vəl to jump, fly voler 3.3) Kilba (Schuh) fəla// fly (v) voler 3.3.1) Kilba (Schuh) fəla// jump

4Proto-Mandara *val to fly voler 4.1) Matal (Branger) mavalaj jump sauter

5Proto-Kotoko North *fɨl fly voler 5.1) Afade (Allison) fɨl; fɨlun fly (v) voler 5.2) Mpade (Allison) fɨ̀l fly (v) voler 5.3) Malgbe (Allison) fɨlwun fly (v) voler

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨl fly voler 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨlwun (vɨl) fly (v) voler 6.2) Mser (Allison) vɨl fly (v) voler

7Proto-Kotoko South *vera fly voler 7.1) Zina (Odden) vèrà fly (v) voler

8Kanuri fәfәnᵑgîn, fәfәttʃîn fly (v) voler
vɨr₁ v. to give donner (8 groups, 19 languages) A syn: v.
There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch and in Proto-Daba. In all other respects this root is stable in these groups.

1Proto-Daba *vɨl give donner 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) vɑl give donner 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) vɑl offer offrir 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) vəl give donner 1.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) vəl offer offrir 1.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) vəl return rendre, renvoyer 1.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) vəl give donner 1.4) Daba (Lienhard) və̄l donner

2Proto-Tera *vɨr give donner 2.1) Tera (Newman) vəri give 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) vu̱r give

3Proto-Hurza *var give donner 3.1) Mbuko (Gravina) var to give donner 3.2) Vame (Kinnaird) və̀rà give donner

4Proto-Mandara *vɨl give donner 4.1) Malgwa (Löhr) vəla give 4.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vɨ́lga give

5Proto-Mofu *vɨl give donner 5.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) və̄làr give donner 5.2) Moloko (Friesen) val give donner 5.2.1) Moloko (Friesen) vər donner 5.3) Zulgo (Haller) və́l donner, faire don 5.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mevəle give donner 5.5) Dugwor (Jubumna) mə vəlej give donner

6Proto-Maroua *vɨl give donner 6.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) vul give donner 6.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) vili donner 6.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) vìlíʼ give donner

7Proto-Lamang *vla give donner 7.1) Lamang (Wolff) vla give

8Proto-Kotoko South *vala give donner 8.1) Zina (Odden) vàlà give donner