wahaj v. to give birth naître (16 groups, 43 languages) C syn: ᵐbɨw.
This is the most widely attested root for 'to give birth'. All three consonants in the root are prone to sporadic deletion or reanalysis, and only in a few cases are all three consonants preserved in the reflexes of individual languages.

1Proto-Mafa *haja give birth naître 1.1) Mafa (Barreteau) ja accoucher 1.2) Cuvok (Gravina) haja bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 1.2.1) Cuvok (Gravina) haja (be) born naître

2Proto-Tera *xa give birth naitre 2.1) Tera (Newman) xa give birth 2.2) Nyimatli (Harley) xa (be) born 2.2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) kha bear (child), give birth

3Proto-Sukur *ji give birth naitre 3.1) Sukur (David) jiiha give birth, to 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ji to give birth;

4Proto-Hurza *wah give birth naître 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) wahaj give birth donner naissance 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) wáhā 1 give birth ; deliver accoucher 4.2.1) Vame (Kinnaird) wáhā 2 give birth naître 4.2.2) Vame (Kinnaird) wáh kīné produce naître

5Proto-Margi *ja give birth naître 5.1) Bura (Blench) ìjà To give birth 5.2) Bura (Blench) jia To give birth 5.3) Margi (Hoffman) ja to give birth 5.4) Margi South (Harley) ja to give birth 5.5) Kilba (Schuh) ja/a (give) birth

6Proto-Mandara *hajɨ give birth naitre 6.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ha 1 produire des fruits 6.1.1) Podoko (Swackhammer) ha 2 naître, accoucher 6.2) Malgwa (Löhr) ja deliver, give birth 6.3) Glavda (Nghagyiva) jìga bear (child), give birth 6.3.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) jàjāna (be) born 6.4) Dghwede (Frick) jige to give birth

7Proto-Mofu *waj give birth naître 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) bear many children donner naissance; enfanter 7.2) Moloko (Friesen) we give birth, be born accoucher; naître 7.2.1) Moloko (Friesen) we engendrer 7.3) Zulgo (Haller) wa accoucher, enfanter, engendrer, produire 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) mewe (be) born naître 7.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) mawa kəla bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.5) Merey (Gravina) wa (be) born naître 7.5.1) Merey (Gravina) wa wawa bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.6) Dugwor (Jubumna) mawaj (be) born naître 7.6.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) mawaj bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 7.7) Mofu North (Barreteau) méjèj accoucher 7.7.1) Mofu North (Barreteau) májàwá accouchement 7.7.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) májàwá naissance 7.8) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ́j be born accoucher, naître, mettre bas, pondre, donner des fruits ; se multiplier 7.8.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) majawa accouchement, naissance

8Proto-Maroua *ji give birth naître 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ji zuŋ bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 8.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) je (be) born naître 8.3) Mbazla (Tourneux) ji mettre au monde, donner naissance 8.3.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) jɛ́jiʼ give birth engendrer

9Proto-Lamang *ja give birth naître 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) ja beget, give birth 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) jaj to give birth donner naissance

10Proto-Higi *jɨ give birth naître 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) give birth/deliver 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) jekə bear (child); give birth 10.2.1) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) jekəgʷo be born 10.3) Kirya (Blench) to give birth (born), bear 10.4) Bana (Lienhard) accoucher, naître, naissance

11Proto-Kotoko Island *wɨj give birth naitre 11.1) Buduma (McKone) wuj engendrer, accoucher. 11.2) Buduma (McKone) wuəj bear (child) accoucher (enfant)

12Proto-Kotoko North *wa give birth naître 12.1) Afade (Allison) we si (be) born naître 12.1.1) Afade (Allison) wan; we bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 12.2) Mpade (Allison) bear (child) accoucher (enfant) 12.2.1) Mpade (Allison) wè sì (be) born naître 12.3) Malgbe (Allison) wawun (wa, we) (be) born naître 12.3.1) Malgbe (Allison) wawun bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

13Proto-Kotoko Centre *wa give birth naître 13.1) Lagwan (Allison) wel zi (be) born naître 13.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) wawun (wa) bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance 13.2) Mser (Allison) we zi (be) born naître 13.2.1) Mser (Allison) we bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

14Proto-Kotoko South *wɨja give birth naître 14.1) Zina (Odden) wìjà bear (child), give birth accoucher, donner naissance

15Proto-Musgum *wi give birth naître 15.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) wi mettre, naître, mettre au monde 15.2) Mbara (Tourneux) wii give birth, bring forth donner naissance, mettre au monde

16Proto-Gidar *ɨwa give birth naitre 16.1) Gidar (Hungerford) uuwa accoucher 16.2) Gidar (Hungerford) uuwa naître, (donner) naissance, accoucher 16.3) Gidar (Schuh) uwa naitre 16.4) Gidar (Hungerford) wiina donner naissance
wɨpaɗ num. four quatre (15 groups, 47 languages) B
This is a widespread root, and has also been reconstructed for Proto-Chadic. Proto-Central Chadic *p had the allophone [p] in medial position, and we would expect this to be reflected by the presence of *p in the group proto-languages. However *p has the reflex *f in all groups except for Gidar and Musgum, which is not expected. One of the features of this root is the widespread occurrence of *u, labialisation or the labialisation prosody. In order to account for this, *w has been reconstructed as the initial consonant. In the consonant prosody groups (Bata, Margi and Higi), *w has usually merged with *f to give *fʷ. In some of the vowel prosody groups (here Daba, Musgum and Gidar), *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. These are both common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *fʷaɗ four quatre 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ə̀nfʷáɗa four 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) fʷaɗ Quatre 4

2Proto-Daba *wɨfaɗ four quatre 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋfɑɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋfɑɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) n̩faɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) fōɗ quatre

3Proto-Mafa *faɗ four quatre 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) fáɗ quatre 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) faɗ four (4) quatre (4)s

4Proto-Tera *foɗa four quatre 4.1) Tera (Newman) vat four 4.2) Nyimatli (Harley) vat four (4) 4.3) Gaʼanda (Gwaji) foɗa four

5Proto-Sukur *fwaɗ four quatre 5.1) Sukur (David) fwaɗ four 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) fwaɗ four

6Proto-Hurza *fuɗaw four quatre 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) fuɗo four quatre 6.2) Vame (Kinnaird) fúɗāw four quatre

7Proto-Margi *fʷaɗu four quatre 7.1) Margi (Hoffman) foɗə four 7.2) Margi South (Harley) fʷaɗu four 7.2.1) Margi South (Harley) foɗu four 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) fʷaɗu/ə four 7.4) Bura (Blench) nfʷar Four

8Proto-Mandara *ufaɗɨ four quatre 8.1) Matal (Branger) ufaɗ four quatre 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ufaɗa,-ə quatre 8.3) Malgwa (Löhr) ufaɗe four 8.4) Glavda (Nghagyiva) ùfàɗa four (4) 8.5) Dghwede (Frick) fitʼe four

9Proto-Mofu *wɨfaɗ four quatre 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) mə̄fáɗ four quatre 9.2) Muyang (Smith) fɑɗ four quatre 9.3) Moloko (Friesen) wəfaɗ four quatre 9.4) Zulgo (Haller) əfáɗ quatre 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) əfaɗ four quatre 9.5.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) faɗ four quatre 9.6) Merey (Gravina) faɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) məfaɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) fàɗ quatre 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) məfaɗ four quatre ; chiffre pair (dans la divination)

10Proto-Maroua *mufaɗ four quatre 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) mufaɗ quatre, radical faë commun à presque tout le groupe Mandara. 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) mufaɗ four (4) quatre (4)s 10.3) Mbazla (SILSurvey) mòfót four quatre

11Proto-Lamang *wɨfaɗ four quatre 11.1) Lamang (Wolff) ùfáɗá four 11.2) Hdi (Bramlett) fwaɗ four quatre

12Proto-Higi *wɨfaɗɨ four quatre 12.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) fʷarə four 12.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) fʷàrə́ Four 12.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) fʷaɗo four 12.3) Kirya (Blench) fʷàr four 12.3.1) Kirya (Blench) fʷàdə̀ four 12.4) Psikye (Angelo) wufáɗə́ four 12.4.1) Psikye (Angelo) wufáʼ four 12.5) Bana (Lienhard) fáɗ(ə́) quatre

13Proto-Kotoko South *foɗi four quatre 13.1) Zina (Odden) fóɗí four (4) quatre (4)

14Proto-Musgum *pɨɗɨ ʷ four quatre 14.1) Vulum (Tourneux) puɗu quatre 14.2) Mbara (Tourneux) puʼdu four quatre 14.3) Muskum (Tourneux) fuuɗi quatre

15Proto-Gidar *paɗa ʷ four quatre 15.1) Gidar (Schuh) poɗo quatre 15.2) Gidar (Hungerford) podo quatre, 4
wɨraj nm. neck cou (12 groups, 29 languages) A syn: ɣɨwaj.
This is a widespread root with a complex history. The final *j has been lost in a number of groups, and in the Margi, Higi and Musgum groups it has been reanalysed as palatalisation. These are common sporadic processes. The *r has the regular reflex *l in the groups of the North sub-branch, and also the Daba group. However there was an irregular change *r to *ɗ in Proto-Mafa, which spread to Proto-Maroua, Proto-Mofu and Proto-Sukur. There was then a further change to *ʔ in Proto-Sukur and Proto-Maroua, and to /d/ in Mafa, which are unestablished changes. The initial *w has been lost in several groups, and in Sukur has fused with the /ʔ/. These are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *wɨra neck cou 1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ùurá (inher. poss., body part); neck, throat 1.1.1) Gude (Hoskinson) ùurá voice, language (reg. poss.) 1.2) Jimi (Djibi) wuran 1 - Cou; 2 - Langue parlée; 3 - Gorge 1.3) Sharwa (Gravina) wura Cou 1.4) Tsuvan (Johnston) wula le cou

2Proto-Daba *wɨla neck cou 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ulɑ neck cou 2.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ulɑ voice voix 2.1.2) Buwal (Viljoen) ulɑ cry cri 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) wəlɑ neck cou 2.2.1) Gavar (Viljoen) wəlɑ voice voix 2.2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) wəlɑ cry cri 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) wula neck cou 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) wə̀là le cou ; appeler

3Proto-Mafa *ɗaja neck cou 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) dájá cou

4Proto-Sukur *ʔʷaj neck cou 4.1) Sukur (David) ʼoj neck

5Proto-Margi *wɨla ʸ neck cou 5.1) Bura (Blench) wulja Neck (general term) Neck of a musical instrumnent such as gulum or yakandi 5.2) Margi South (Harley) gjulija neck 5.3) Kilba (Schuh) wulja neck

6Proto-Mofu *ɗaj neck cou 6.1) Zulgo (Haller) ɗa cou m. 6.2) Gemzek (Sabatai) bijɗa le cou 6.2.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) bijɗa voice voix 6.3) Merey (Gravina) ɗaj cou 6.3.1) Merey (Gravina) ɗaj neck cou, voix 6.4) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɗaj voice voix 6.4.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɗaj throat gorge 6.4.2) Dugwor (Jubumna) ɗaj neck cou 6.5) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɗaj neck cou 6.5.1) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ɗaj voix

7Proto-Maroua *ʔaj neck cou 7.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) aj neck cou 7.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼaj cou 7.2.1) Mbazla (SILSurvey) ājīʼ neck (front & back) cou (nuque et gorge)

8Proto-Lamang *ulek neck cou 8.1) Lamang (Wolff) ulek neck

9Proto-Higi *wɨlɨj neck cou 9.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) wuljə neck 9.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) wulji neck 9.3) Kirya (Blench) wúɽí neck, voice 9.4) Bana (Lienhard) wə́rí cou, voix

10Proto-Kotoko South *ɣʷɨre neck cou 10.1) Zina (Odden) wùni neck cou 10.2) Mazera (Allison) ɣule neck cou

11Proto-Musgum *wɨla ʸ neck cou 11.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) wile cou

12Proto-Gidar *wɨla neck cou 12.1) Gidar (Schuh) wula, a cou 12.2) Gidar (Hungerford) wəlaʼ cou
wɨrɨɗ ʸ nf. pus pus (13 groups, 39 languages) A
This root is extremely complex to reconstruct, with many phonological processes taking place. There is a regular change *r→l in the North sub-branch, Proto-Daba and Cuvok, which is consistently realised here. Metathesis of root consonants has taken place in Proto-Bata, Sukur and Proto-Mofu, and in Proto-Hurza the three consonants appear in reverse order. *ɗ has been lost in several languages. The loss has been compensated for in Sukur by the addition of a prefix /m-/, and in Mafa by the prefix /v-/. Elsewhere the loss of *ɗ has been compensated for by the reduplication of a syllable, as in Cuvok, several Mofu group languages and the Giziga languages. In several cases *ɗ and *w have fused, creating either /ʔʷ/ or /ɓ/. In some languages *w has been reanalysed as the labialisation prosody. In Gemzek and Merey, this has combined with the palatalisation prosody to produce front-rounded vowels. All of these are common sporadic processes.

1Proto-Bata *rɨwɨɗ ʸ pus pus 1.1) Bata (Boyd) rèèto pus 1.2) Gude (Hoskinson) rə́ʼúnə puss 1.3) Jimi (Djibi) ruʼun Pus 1.4) Sharwa (Gravina) rjəɓʷək pus

2Proto-Daba *wɨlaɗ ʸ pus pus 2.1) Buwal (Viljoen) uleɗ pus pus 2.2) Gavar (Viljoen) wəleɗ pus pus 2.3) Mbudum (Ndokobaï) wiliɓ pus pus 2.4) Daba (Lienhard) wìlēɗ ́ le pus

3Proto-Mafa *wɨrɨɗ ʸ pus pus 3.1) Mafa (Barreteau) voroɓ pus 3.2) Cuvok (Gravina) leleɓ pus pus

4Proto-Tera *ra pus pus 4.1) Nyimatli (Harley) ra pus

5Proto-Sukur *mɨru pus pus 5.1) Sukur (David) məru pus 5.2) Sukur (Thomas) mərəu pus:- is a thick yellowish or greenish liquid that is produced in an effected wound.

6Proto-Hurza *ɗɨrɨw ʸ pus pus 6.1) Mbuko (Gravina) ɗərew pus pus 6.2) Pelasla (Kinnarid) ɗiraw pus 6.3) Vame (Kinnaird) ɗīrū pus pus

7Proto-Margi *lɨʔʷɨ pus pus 7.1) Bura (Blench) lu Pus 7.2) Margi (Hoffman) luʼu pus 7.3) Kilba (Schuh) luʼu/u pus

8Proto-Mandara *lɨwɨɗ pus pus 8.1) Matal (Branger) àlàw mík pus pus 8.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) ləɓa,-ə pus 8.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) lua pus (m) 8.4) Malgwa (Löhr) luwa, əluwe pus 8.5) Glavda (Nghagyiva) lùwa pus 8.5.1) Glavda (Owens) lu clay, mud, pus

9Proto-Mofu *walɨɗ ʸ pus pus 9.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) ālə̄l pus pus ; glaires 9.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑlu pus pus 9.3) Mada (Nkoumou) óllò pus 9.4) Moloko (Friesen) oroh pus pus 9.5) Gemzek (Sabatai) alœɓ, aləɓ pus pus; le pus 9.6) Merey (Gravina) loloɓ, lelœɓ pus pus 9.7) Dugwor (Jubumna) loloɓ pus pus 9.8) Mofu North (Barreteau) lálàw pus 9.9) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) laláɓ pus

10Proto-Maroua *lɨlɨɓ ʷ pus pus 10.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) lulu pus 10.1.1) Giziga Moutourwa (Michielan) lulu toponyme 10.2) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) luloɓ pus pus

11Proto-Higi *lɨʔʷɨ pus pus 11.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) lə̀ʼuwə́ Pus (in a wound) 11.1.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) lə́ɠwə́ pus 11.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) ləuo pus 11.3) Bana (Lienhard) lə̀ʼwə́ pus, sève

12Proto-Musgum *alu pus pus 12.1) Mulwi (Tourneux) alu pus

13Proto-Gidar *wɨlɨ ʸ pus pus 13.1) Gidar (Hungerford) wili pus
wɨvɨn n. grinding stone meule (14 groups, 30 languages) B
This root denotes the large stone with a flat top upon which food ingredients are ground. The changes *v→f in Musgum and *v→b in Gidar and the Meri subgroup of the Mofu group are regular, but the other instances of *b are not. There was a regular word-final change *n→r in the Margi-Mandara-Mofu major group. There is evidence for *w in the Margi, Mandara, Maroua, Lamang, Kotoko South and Musgum groups, in the form either of the vowel /u/ or the labialisation prosody.

1Proto-Daba *ŋvɨn grinding stone meule 1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) ŋvɑn grinding stone pierre moudre 1.1.1) Buwal (Viljoen) mɑ̄n ŋ̀vɑ̄n upper grinding stone meule supérieure 1.2) Gavar (Viljoen) ŋvən tɑsɑɗ grinding stone pierre à moudre

2Proto-Tera *vɨna grinding stone meule 2.1) Nyimatli (Harley) vu̱na grinding stone 2.1.1) Nyimatli (Harley) vu̱na upper grinding stone 2.1.2) Nyimatli (Harley) vu̱nar grinding stone

3Proto-Sukur *ban grinding stone meule 3.1) Sukur (David) ban grinding table 3.2) Sukur (Thomas) ban grinding stone; the stone that is used to grind the guineacorn, maize, etc.

4Proto-Hurza *van grinding stone meule 4.1) Mbuko (Gravina) van stone upon which food is ground meule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase 4.2) Vame (Kinnaird) vàn millstone pierre à écraser, meule pour moudre les graines du mil, haricot etc .sous forme de la farine. Il est placé typiquement dans la cuisine

5Proto-Margi *bura grinding stone meule 5.1) Bura (Blench) bur, bura Lower grinding stone 5.2) Kilba (Schuh) bəra/a grinding quern

6Proto-Mandara *uvɨra grinding stone meule 6.1) Matal (Branger) vəl grinding stone meule 6.2) Podoko (Swackhammer) mavára,-ə meule 6.3) Mandara (Fluckiger) uvérá pierre plate qui servait autrefois à écraser le mil (f), pierre à écraser (f) 6.4) Malgwa (Löhr) ugvəra grinding stone, lower part 6.5) Glavda (Owens) váa grinding stone 6.5.1) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vàːɾa lower grinding stone 6.5.2) Glavda (Nghagyiva) vàːɾa grinding stone 6.6) Dghwede (Frick) vəra grinding stone

7Proto-Mofu *var ʸ grinding stone meule 7.1) Ouldeme (Kinnaird) āvár pierre pour écraser le mil 7.2) Muyang (Smith) ɑvɑr lower grinding stone meule, pierre sur laquelle on écrase la farine 7.3) Moloko (Friesen) ver pierre taillé à écraser dessus 7.4) Gemzek (Sabatai) bor grinding stone pierre à moudre** 7.4.1) Gemzek (Sabatai) ber grinding stone pierre à moudre** 7.5) Merey (Gravina) ber grinding stone pierre à moudre 7.5.1) Merey (Gravina) ber upper grinding stone meule supérieure

8Proto-Maroua *van grinding stone meule 8.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) ᵑgurvoŋ grinding stone pierre à moudre 8.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) vaŋ meule

9Proto-Lamang *buna grinding stone meule 9.1) Lamang (Wolff) bùnà grinding stone 9.2) Hdi (Bramlett) buna mortor stone la meule

10Proto-Higi *vɨna grinding stone meule 10.1) Kamwe-Nkafa (Harley) və̀nà Grindingstone-lower. 10.2) Kamwe-Futu (Harley) vəna millstone; grinding stone 10.3) Kirya (Blench) və̀nà millstone

11Proto-Kotoko Centre *vɨn grinding stone meule 11.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨn grinding stone pierre à moudre 11.1.1) Lagwan (Allison) vɨn upper grinding stone meule supérieure

12Proto-Kotoko South *vuna grinding stone meule 12.1) Mazera (Allison) vuna grinding stone pierre à moudre

13Proto-Musgum *funaj grinding stone meule 13.1) Mbara (Tourneux) funaj millstone meule

14Proto-Gidar *bwɨn grinding stone meule 14.1) Gidar (Hungerford) buə̀n nawsəra meule, pierre, (à) écraser, moudre
wɨzim nm. ram bélier (6 groups, 12 languages) C
This root for 'ram' is far less widespread than the root for 'sheep'. There is a regular word-final change *m→w in Proto-Mandara, which may be behind the Matal form, if it is truly cognate. There was a regular change *z
→s in Proto-Kotoko North, and a regular subsequent change *s→j in Malgbe.

1Proto-Mafa *zam ʸ ram bélier 1.1) Cuvok (Gravina) zem ram bélier

2Proto-Mandara *magadzaw ram bélier 2.1) Matal (Branger) māɡādzàw ram bélier

3Proto-Mofu *azam ʸ ram bélier 3.1) Dugwor (Jubumna) Azem ram bélier 3.2) Mofu North (Barreteau) zèm-tə̄ɓāŋ bélier 3.3) Mofu-Gudur (Hollingsworth) ézem bélier

4Proto-Maroua *ɨzɨm ʸ ram bélier 4.1) Giziga Marva (Hamidou) izim ram bélier 4.2) Mbazla (Tourneux) ʼeʒem, ʼaʒem bélier

5Proto-Kotoko North *wɨsʼam ram bélier 5.1) Afade (Allison) sʼɨm ram bélier 5.2) Mpade (Allison) sàm ram bélier 5.3) Malgbe (Allison) wijam ram bélier

6Proto-Kotoko Centre *wɨzɨmi ram bélier 6.1) Lagwan (Allison) uzɨmi ram bélier 6.2) Mser (Allison) uzam ram bélier